You are using an outdated browser. For a faster, safer browsing experience, upgrade for free today.


Lubyanova I.P.


Institute for Occupational Health of AMS of Ukraine, Kiev

Full article (PDF), RUS

The information on the body iron overload in welders under the inhalation route of entry is presented in that anicle. The examinations of 356 ferrous metal welders show that the mean content of iron in the whole blood (Fe^), which exceeds the upper level of the norm (52 ntg/l), was recorded in almost the half of the examined persons (46±3,9%). The degree of trans¬ferrin iron saturation (TS%) in welders exceeded the level being critical for hemocromatosis development (45%) in I2,6±3,7% practically healthy welders. In welders with lungs occupational pathology the mean values of Feb| and Fe*,, TS% and the number of patients with high values of iron metabolism were increasing. The mean content of Fe*.r andTS% depend¬ed on the intensity of the welding process and on the welder’s length of employment. Significant increase of iron content in the plasma ferritin, in transferrin of blood cell elements as well as free iron were recorded in welders with the lungs occupa¬tional pathology. These indices as well as others which characterize carbohydrate metabolism and the functional state of the liver were worsening in the group of patients with TS >45%.

Key words: secondary body iron intoxication, electric welders, chronic intoxication, transferrin, ferritin


  1. Avtsyn A.P.. Zhavoronkov A.A.. Rish M.A.. Strochkova L.S. Mikroelementozy cheloveka: etiologiya. klassifikatsiya,- M.: Meditsina. 1991.-496s.
  2. Iron and human disease/Ed. by R.BnLauffer.- Boca Raton. Ann Arbor. London. Tbkio: CRC Press. 1992.- 534 p.
  3. Moskalev YU.N. Mineral'nyy obmen,- M.: Meditsina. 1985.-288 s.
  4. Pietrangelo A. Hereditary hemochromatosis - а new look at an old disease//N. Engl. J. Med.- 2004.- V.350.- P. 2383-2397.
  5. EASL International Consensus Conference Haemochromatosis//J. Hepatol.- 2000.- V.33.- P. 485-504.
  6. Weinberg E.D. Iron Loading and Disease Surveillance//Emerging Inf. Dls. J.- 1999.- V.5. №3.- P. 346-352.
  7. Kundiev Yu.I., Lubyanova I.P. (2002), “The role of iron in the development of pathological changes in the body of welders “, Proceedings of the 1st International. scientific-practical conf. -Environmental protection, health, safety in welding production. September 11-13, 2002 — Odessa: Astroprint, 489-517.
  8. Mykhaylyk О.М.. Dudchenko N.A. Nonheme iron determination in biological samples on evidence derived from electron spin resonance data//Metal irons in biology and medicine.- Paris: John Libbey Eurotext. 1998.-V.5.-P. 3-7.
  9. Arkhipova O.G.. Shatskaya H.H.. Semenova L.S. i dr. Metody issledovaniya v profpatologii (biokhimicheskiye).-M.: Meditsina, 1988.-208 p.
  10. Gorban L.N. (1987), Gigiyena truda v mashinostroitel'noy promyshlennosti. Mekhanosborochnyye tsekhi. Svarochnyye raboty//Rukovodstvo po gigiyene truda [Occupational hygiene in the engineering industry. Mechanical assembly shops. Welding work], Guide to occupational hygiene. Meditsina, Moscow, Vol.2, 203-211.
  11. Hewitt P.J. Estimation of regional pulmonary deposition and exposure for fumes from SMAW and GMAW mild and stainless steel consumables//Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J - 1995,-V.56. №2,- P. 136-142.
  12. Yavdoshchin I.R.. Pokhodnya I.K. Obrazovaniye sva¬rochnogo aerozolya pri dugovoy svarke plavleniyem i yego gigiyenicheskaya otsenka//Sb. trudov 1-y Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. «Zashchita okruzhayushchey sredy. zdorov'ye, bezopasnost' v svarochnom proizvodstve,11-13 sentyabrya 2002 g.- Odessa: Astroprint. 2002, 38-54.
  13. Antonini J.. Thylor М.. Zimmer A.. Roberts J. Pulmonary responses to welding fumes: role of metal constituents//J. Toxicol. Environ. Health.- 2004,- V.67. №3,- P. 233-249.
  14. Doherty M.J.. Healy M.. RichardsonS.G.. FisherN.C. Total body iron overload in welder's siderosis// Occup. Environ. Med.- 2004.- V.61. № 1P. 82-85.
  15. Chazin S. Is iron making you sick?//Reader's Dig.-1995,-№10.-P. 139-144.
  16. Geisser P. Iron therapy with special emphasis on oxidative stress.- Vifor (Int.) Inc. 1998.- 142 p.
  17. Sullivan J.L. Stored iron and myocardial perfusion deficits//Am Heart J.-2002.-V. 143.-P. 193-195.
  18. Yuan X.M.. Li W. The iron hypothesis of atherosclerosis and its clinical impact//Ann. Med.- 2003.- V.35. №8.-P. 578-591.
  19. Moos T.. Mogan E.H. The metabolism of neuronal iron and its pathogenic role in neurological disease: review//Ann. NY Acad. ScL-2004.- V.1012.-P. 14-26.
  20. Youdim M.B.. Stephenson G. Shachar D.B. Ironing Iron Out in Parkinson's Disease and Other Neu- rodegenerative Diseases with Iron Chelators: A Lesson from 6-Hydroxy-dopamine and Iron Chelators. Desferal and VK-28.//Ann NY Acad Sci.- 2004.- № 101 г.- p. 306-325.
  21. Huang X. Iron overload and its association with cancer risk in humans: evidence for iron as a carcinogenic metal//Mutat Res.- 2003.- V.533. №1-2,- P. 153-171.
  22. Gordeladze A.C.. Smirnov O.A.. Radchenko V.G. Kliniko-morfologicheskaya kharakteristika pervichnogo gemokhromatoza//Arkh. patol.- 1995,- №6, 44-48.
  23. Fernandez-Real J.M.. Loez-Bermejo A.. Rieart W. Cross-talk between iron metabolism and diabetes// Diabetes.- 2002,- V.51.- P. 2348-2354.
  24. Witte D.L. Mild liver enzyme abnormalities: eliminating hemochromatosis as cause//Clin. Chem.- 1997.-V.43.-P. 1535-1538.
  25. Bonkovsky H.L.. Lambrecht R.W. Iron-induced liver injury//Clin. Liver Dis.-2000,-V.4. №2.-P. 409-429.
  26. Alpert P.T. New and emerging theories of cardiovascular disease: infection and elevated iron//Biol. Res. Nurs.- 2004,- V.6. №1.-P 3-10.
  27. Olynyk J., Hall R. Ahern M. et al. Screening for genetic haemochromatosis in a rheumatology clinic// Aust. NZ. J. Med.- 1994,-V.24.- P. 588-589.
  28. Kalyuzhnyy I.T. Gemokhromagoz: klinika, diagnostika i lecheniye//Terapevt, arkh.- 1988.- №2,121-126.
  29. Freedman М.Н.. Grisaru D.. Olivieri N. et al. Pulmonary syndrome in patients with thalassemia major receiving intravenous deferoxamine infusions// Am. J. Dis. Child - 1990,- V. 144,- P. 565-569.
  30. Lyubchenko P.N.. VinitskayaT.Ye. Struktura professional'noy zabolevayemosti u svarshchikov//Meditsina truda i prom. ekol,- 2001.- №8, 7-10.
  31. Hudson N.J.. Evans А.Т.. Yeung С.К.. Hewitt P.J. Effect of process parameters upon the dopamine and lipid peroxidation activity of selected MIG welding fumes as a marker of potential neurotoxieity//Ann. Occup. Hyg. - 2001.- V.45. №3.- P. 187
  32. Racette B.A.. McGee-Minnich L.. Moerlein S.M. Welding-related parkinsonism: clinical features, treatment. and pathophysiology//Neurol.- 2001.- V.9. №56 (1).-P.8-13.
  33. KucherukT.K .. Lubyanova I.P. (1995), “Lipid metabolism, iron metabolism and biological age in welders with occupational pathology of the bronchopulmonary apparatus”, Vrachebnoye delo, 1, 16-18.
  34. Sjogren В.. Fossum Т.. Lindh Т.. Weiner J. Welding and ischemic heart disease//Int. J. Occup. Environ. Health.- 2002.- V.8. №4.- P. 309-311.
  35. Gorban L.N., KucherukT.K ., Lubyanova I.P. (1988), Biologicheskiy vozrast elektrosvarshchikov//Gerontologiya i geriatriya. Trudovaya reabilitatsiya pozhilykh lyudey [Biological age of electric welders. Gerontology and geriatrics. Labor rehabilitation of elderly people], Kiev, 69-72.
  36. Krasnyuk E.P. (1989), “Diseases of the digestive system in electric welders”, Gigiena truda, Issue 25, Zdorovya, Kiev, 9-13.
  37. Benhamou S.. Benhamou Е.. Flamant R. Occupational risk factors of lung cancer in a French case-control study//Br. J. lnd. Med.- 1988.- V.45.- P. 231-233.
  38. Lubyanova I.P. Novichenko N.L. (1995), “On the problem of carcinogenic risk in the steel welder profession”, Vrachebnoye delo, 4, 88-91.
  39. Mortensen J.T. Risk for reduced sperm quality among metal workers with special reference to welders//Scand. J. Work Environ. Health.- 1988.- №14.- P. 27-30.
  40. Bonde J.P.. Erust E. Male infertility related to occupation exposures//lnternational symposium on new epidemics in occupational health.- 1994. 16-19 May, Helsinki. Finland.- P. 14.
  41. Torner M.. Zetterberg C., Anden U. et al. Workload and musculoskeletal problems: a comparison between welders and office clerks (with reference also to flshermen)//Ergonomlcs.- 1991.- V.34. №9,- P. 1179-1196.
  42. Lowe B.D.. Wurzelbacher S.J.. Shulinan S.A.. Hudock S.D. Electromyographic and discomfort analysis of confined-space shipyard welding processes// Appl. Ergon.- 2001.- V.32. №3.- P. 255-269
  43. Yamada G.. Igarashi T.. Sonoda H. et al. Use of bronchopulmonary lavage for eliminating inhaled fume particles from a patient with arc welder's lung//Int. Med.- 1998,- V.37. № 11.- P. 962-964.
  44. Ishida Y.. Sera K.. Ohta K.. Kageshlta T. A case of rapid development of arc welder's lung during the course of a year//Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi.- 2003.- V.41. №5,- P. 351-355.