SI "Institute of Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine", Kyiv
Introduction. Spine diseases are diagnosed in 30 % of the population in developed countries in the world. The number of such patients has increased rapidly in recent years, and considerable funds have been spent for their rehabilitation. In the first place in the frequency of the development (60–80 %) there are lesions of the lumbosacral spine, on the second (about 10 %) – lesions of the cervical spine. In the structure of occupational morbidity in Ukraine the pathology of the musculoskeletal system takes a particular place, in the second – diseases of the bronchopulmonary system, making up approximately 20 %, which, in absolute figures, averages 1616 cases per year. This concerns, in particular, the category of miners, the incidence in which reaches an estimated 80 % in the structure of occupational pathology, and is due to the fact that, in most cases, the working conditions of miners are approaching extreme ones. Hard physical work is used at many stages of the technological progress in coal mining, which is associated with cargo movement (often of excessive weight) over a considerable distance, overstrain of selected muscle groups (upper, lower extremities, trunk), when performing manual assembly work on cleaning the face from coal and rock, considerable static stress (retention of the instrument, "feeding force", staying in the forced working posture for a long time), which is the main etiological factor in the development of chronic radiculopathy of occupational genesis. Unfortunately, in most cases, occupational diseases, which are caused by degenerative-dystrophic changes in the spine, are diagnosed at the stage of chronic radiculopathy, which leads to decreasing a patient's quality of life, temporary and persistent disability. At the same time, employer, enterprise, industry and the state, as a whole, bear financial and economic expenses. Thus, in 2016, 55,2 million UAH in total was paid in Ukraine as a one-time assistance in the case of the loss of professional capacity for work and the fifth part of these expenses were for diseases associated with the damage of the spine. The above-mentioned underlines a need to develop criteria of early diagnostics and prevention of occupational radiculopathy. Purpose: to systematize the main idea about etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnostics and measures on prevention of chronic radiculopathy of occupation genesis.
Results: There have been summarized the data on the morbidity of chronic reticulopathy in miners of main professions in coal mines in Ukraine and to distinguish main risk factors of the disease development. The analysis of the efficiency of visualization and functional methods of diagnostics of the pathology of the musculoskeletal system with due account of the pathogenesis has been made.
Conclusion. The priority of development of methods of earlier diagnostics of occupational radiculopathy is defined, to much extent, by the pathology of the musculoskeletal apparatus in miners,who are exposed to significant physical loads in combination with other harmful factors of the work environment, necessity to improve the diagnostics of the disease at earlier stages of its development and to elaborate measures on primary and secondary prevention of disorders in the musculoskeletal apparatus.
Key words: chronic retinopathy, physical load, diagnostics, prevention