Vavrinevych E. P.
COMPARATIVE TOXICOLOGICAL AND HYGIENIC EVALUATION OF HAZARD IN DEVELOPING ACUTE INHALATION POISONINGS BY DIFFERENT FUNGICIDES IN OCCUPATIONAL CONTINGENTS
Bogomolets National Medical University, Kiev
Full article (PDF), RUS
Background. Pesticides are among the leading factors deteriorating work conditions due to their possibility to get into working zone air, on the naked skin, and to have a negative impact on the workers’ health. It is important to prognosticate a possible harmful effect of fungicides on workers’ health at early experimental stages.
Purpose of the study. A review and grounding the world literature data on toxic properties of triazoles, strobilurins, ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamates, cyanpyrroles, anilides, aniline-pyrimidines fungicides, and to make a comparative analysis on the possibility of developing acute inhalation poisonings by the studied fungicides in occupational contingents.
Materials and methods. An analytical review of scientific publications was carried out using US EPA, FAO/WHO, Annex I, SANCO, EFSA data and Extoxnet, Inchem on-line data. The comparative toxicological evaluation of triazoles (tebucon-azole, difenoconazole, and penconazole), strobilurines (azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin), ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamates (methyram, mancozeb), cyan pyrroles (fludioxonil), anilides (benalaxyl-M, boscalid), aniline-pyrimidines (cyprodinyl, valifenal, pyrimethanil) active ingredients of the mentioned fungicides was made using the literature data. A Class of hazard according to the toxicometry criteria of studied substances was established according to SSanRN 8.8.1.002-98. The evaluation of the hazard of inhalation poisonings development was made by the following parameters: the index of potential inhalation toxicity (IPIT) and the pesticide effect selectivity factor (ESFint|).
Results. In accordance with SSanRN 8.8.1.002-98 anilides are referred to Class III of hazard, cyanpyrroles, ethylene-bis- dithiocarbamates, anilinopyrimidines, triazoles and strobilurins — to Class II (limitation criterion — inhalation toxicity). All the studied compounds are low-hazard substances according to Ipit. Some of the studied fungicides express sufficient effect selectivity, and some are of low effect selectivity according to ESFint|. On the basis of the tested fungicides coefficients of possible inhalation poisoning there have been made ranging in such order: aniline-pyrimidines< strobilurines < triazoles < cyan pyrroles < anilides < ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamates and on the basis of pesticide effect selectivity factor (inhalation) coefficients - anilides < aniline-pyrimidines < cyan pyrroles < triazoles < strobilurins < ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamates.
Conclusion. It is established that in application of anilides and cyanpyrroles compounds the probability of acute inhalation toxic effects occurrence in personnel is low, however as regards ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamates, anilinopyrimidines, triazoles and strobilurins application it is relatively high.
Key words: fungicides, triazoles, strobilurins, ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamates, cyanpyrroles, anilides, aniline- pyrimidines, index of potential inhalation toxicity, coefficient of selectivity
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