1National Technical University of Ukraine "KPI", Kyiv
2State Institution "Institute for Occupational Health of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine", Kyiv
3The E. O. Paton Electric Welding Institute of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv
Introduction. Development of new brands of welding materials with improved hygienic characteristics should be accompanied by hygienic and toxicological assessment.
The aim of the study was to determine possibilities of using an express-method for assessment of toxicity of welding aerosols (WА) in order to receive information on cytotoxicity of welding materials.
Materials and methods. 9 serial researched brands, covered with electrodes of different destination for welding high, carbon and low alloy steels have been investigated. The evaluation of toxicity was conducted according to experimentally defined index of toxicity (It) by the express-method for WА on the analyzer AT-05 (Russia) and calculated hygienic indices, according to ISO 15011-4: 2008 (the limit value and class of WА).
Results. Toxicity index all of all samples of EA, obtained when using electrodes for welding of high-alloy steels was significantly lower than for welding of carbon and low alloy steels. The increased toxicity was revealed for welding electrodes with high concentrations of carcinogenic substances – hexavalent chromium and nickel, as evidenced in the decrease of the value of the index cytotoxicity and limit WA values.
Conclusions. The "toxicity index" is in the relation with standardized calculation parameters (limit values of WА) in accordance with international methodological standards ISO 15011-4: 2008, thus confirming the possibility of its use as a screening method in practice of the sanitary-hygienic assessment of welding materials.
Key words: welding fumes, index of toxicity, covered electrodes