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Basanets A. V.1, Bulavko M. M.2


1State Institution "Institute for Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine", Kyiv

2Lviv regional hospital

Full article (PDF), UKR

Introduction. The development of osteoarthritis and its complications is a serious medical and social problem, and that of deforming osteoarthritis (DA) of occupational origin, pathogenesis of cartilage damages, due to exposure to physical factors of the working environment at DA, early diagnosis of this disease, are poorly studied.

Purpose of work. Analysis and summary of the current state of DA problem in literature sources as a professionally caused disease in the mining industry workers.

Materials and methods. An analytical review of scientific publications was carried out; the current state of the problem in general, and directly in the context of the DA as an occupational disease, was studied in national and foreign specialized publications. Also work conditions and clinical symptoms of DA in underground miners were investigated.

Results. DA is the most common chronic degenerative joint disease that has often a progressive course, leads to limitation of work efficiency, deterioration in the quality of life and disability. In Ukraine, DA makes 32,0 % of the number of all diseases of the musculoskeletal system; in the working population it makes 17,5 %. Epidemiological studies on occupational factors among coal industry workers have shown several combinations of physical factors associated with arthrosis. The most significant group of factors, causing disorders of the locomotor apparatus in miners, consists of two components: hard physical labor and the forced working posture. The pathogenesis of all types of DA is presented by internal (connective tissue dysplasia, metabolic disorders and nutritional disorders of bones and cartilage, endocrine disorders, chronic infectious processes, medical comorbidity) and external factors (long-term low temperature exposure, permanent injuries and other harmful working conditions). Instrumental methods allow to accurately assess the existing changes and their part in the articular structures at DA. The study made it possible to examine advantages and disadvantages of the existing methods of DA diagnosis (X-ray, arthroscopy, ultrasound, CT, MRI). There have been considered main measures of the primary, secondary and tertiary prevention and rehabilitation of patients with DA of occupational etiology

Conclusions. DA problem, being of occupational pathology, is still poorly understood. There is little coverage of early verification of the diagnosis, diagnostic criteria of trophic disorders in the joint tissue by the key minerals content. The existing publications do not contain any diagnostic data on the use of MRI-3D for erarly joint lesions in workers, exposed to high physical loads. There is a need in more specific study of the cartilage damage pathogenesis due to exposure to physical factors in the production environment. It is necessary to improve the system of early detection and prevention of DA, including, also, at the stage of periodic medical examinations.

Key words: deforming arthrosis, gonarthrosis, occupational disease, workers of mining industry, criteria of early diagnosis, preventive measures


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