Chernyuk V. I., Bobko N. A., Gadayeva D. O.
DIFFERENCES IN BLOOD CIRCULATION FUNCTIONING IN TRUCK DRIVERS RELATED TO AGE, EXPERIENCE AND WORK REGIME
State Institution "Kundiiev Institute of Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine", Kyiv
Full article (PDF), ENG
Introduction. Hypertension results in about half of cases and days of temporary disability in drivers. Harmful factors of their work place (high neuro-emotional strain, hazardous situations, responsibility for other persons, vigilance at work, attention to devices, hypodynamia, noise, vibration, infrasound, etc.) can cause blood circulation system diseases. Age, experience and work regime caused changes in the circulatory system functioning in drivers remain insufficiently studied.
Purpose of the study. To reveal differences in the functioning of the blood circulation system related to age, experience and work regime characteristics in long-distance truck drivers.
Materials and methods. Truck drivers (56 men aged 28–64; M ± m: 50,2 ± 1,4), engaged in approximately 2-week long distance freight transportations, were observed by measuring heart rate, arrhythmia, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, height and weight. Hemodynamic parameters were calculated. Work experience of subjects was 8–47 years (31,4 ± 1,3), driver experience – 0– 47 years (28,8 ± 1,5), long distance truck driver experience – 0–46 years (21,1 ± 1,5), night work experience – 0–40 years (17,4 ± 1,6). The data were analysed at p < 0,05.
Results. 49 % of truck drivers showed an increased blood pressure corresponding to mild or moderate hypertension; 57 % – showed cardiovascular system (CVS) functional state within below the average Class, including low (29 %) and very low Class (7 %); almost all (98 % of those surveyed) – disordered type of self-regulation of blood circulation (92 % – the vascular type), being a known risk factor of hypertension development. 68 % of drivers demonstrated the prevalence of parasympathetic activation in the CVS functioning that is associated with worsening of blood circulation, sympathetic-adrenal and nervous system states. 13 % of truck drivers manifested arrhythmia against the background of the increased BP reflecting the risk of sudden cardiac events. The functional state of the CVS in truck drivers changed to the below average Class when 43 y. o, to the low Class – when 56 y. o., before the established retirement age in Ukraine. After 20 years of work as a driver the state of the CVS is worsening up to the below average Class, after 37 years – to the low Class. The most critical parameters for adaptation to night work were revealed: arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, pulse, mean-dynamic), index of insufficient blood circulation, the Kerdo's vegetative index, arrhythmia and (after 20 years of night work hours experience) stroke volume. Conclusions. The unfavourable state and accelerated ageing of the CVS in truck drivers were revealed. Night driving causes specific unfavourable changes in the vascular part of CVS and also in the heart muscle functioning. Prophylactic measures are necessary to promote the health and to prolong the occupational longevity of truck drivers.
Key words: age, work experience, truck drivers, cardiovascular system, night work
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ORCID ID of co-authors and their contribution to the preparation and writing of the article:
Chernyuk V.I. (ORCID 0000-0002-5110-9677) - task setting, research planning, selection of tools and research methods, participation in the development of research program and in the preparation of the article;
Bobko N.A. (ORCID 0000-0002-4545-7421) - organization and maintenance of research, analysis of world and domestic literature, selection of tools and methods of research, participation in the development of research program, author's modification of data analysis methods, analysis of results, participation in preparation of the article;
Gadayeva D.O. (ORCID 0000-0001-7493-6723) - collection of primary material, preparation of research data base, mathematical and statistical data processing, participation in the preparation of illustrative material for the article.