You are using an outdated browser. For a faster, safer browsing experience, upgrade for free today.


Kostyshyn N. M., Grzhegotsky M. R., Servetnyk M. I.


Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University

Full article (PDF), UKR

Introduction. The influence of whole body vibration can affect the bone tissue and the body in general, intensifying the development of pathological processes, caused by the negative effect of the environment. Vibration exposure can result in adverse health effects such as spinal injuries, abdominal, neurological and cardiovascular disorders. Experiments on animals show remodeling bone changes in response to the low-frequency whole body vibration, but the data on the middle and high frequency of occupational vibration are limited.

Purpose of the study was to conduct studying the effect of whole body vibration of different frequencies on the structural and functional state and on mechanisms of bone remodelling in rats.

Materials and methods. An experimental study was conducted on mature male rats. Fragments of rats’ femoral bone were taken for histologic examination.

Results. In all experimental groups the relationship between the power of the vibration stimulus and the level of the metabolism of bone tissue was found. In the course of the histological study of specimens of the bone tissue on the 28th day of the experiment acute damages in the bone tissue and initial signs of its remodeling have been seen. The remodelling processes in the bone and initial manifestations of the osteogenesis reach their maximum in animals after ceasing the vibration exposure. Тhe remodeling processes were represented by enhanced regeneration in the zone of the cartilage plate, increased proliferation activity and hyperplasia of chondrocytes, hypertrophy in the respective zones of the cartilage tissue, by zones of forming immature bone tissue in areas of the previous damage, focal replacement fibrosis and angiomatosis.

Conclusion. It has been determined that with the increase of the vibration frequency (from 15 Hz to 75 Hz) the velocity of the bone tissue metabolism increases, osteoblasts’ activation processes are observed, the impairment of collagen and calcium losses is increased, leading subsequently to the osteoporosis occurrence.

Key words: whole body vibration, bone tissue, bone remodeling


  1. Chernyuk, V. I., Nazarenko, V. I. State sanitary standards on industrial general and local vibration,, 2000. Kyiv, 46 p. (in Ukrainian).
  2. Kostyshyn, N. M., Gzhegotsky, M. R. 2016, "Evaluation of mineral density and bone tissue metabolism in rats under various vibration parameters", Experimental and Clinical Physiology and Biochemistry, v. 74, no. 2, pp. 5–14 (in Ukrainian).
  3. Schutska, H. V., Hudyma, A. A., Boris, R. M. 2013, "Peculiarities of the bone tissue remodeling in conditions of hypokinetic osteoporosis and polytrauma in the experiment", Actual problems of transport medicine, v. 31, no. 1, pp. 112–117 (in Ukrainian).
  4. Bovenzi, M., Hulshof, C. 1999, "An update review of epidemiologic studies on the relationship between exposure to whole-body vibration and low back pain", Interational Arch. Occupational Entvironmental Health, no. 2, pp. 351–365.
  5. Chen Guo-Xian, Zheng Shuai, Qin Shuai et al. 2014, "Effect of Low-Magnitude Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Alendronate on Ovariectomized Rats: A Random Controlled Osteoporosis Prevention Study", PLoS ONE, v. 9, no. 5, pp.1–8.
  6. Christiansen, B. A., Kotiya, A. A., Silva, M. J. 2009, "Constrained tibial vibration does not produce an anabolic bone response in adult mice", Bone, v. 45, pp. 750–759.
  7. Wenger, K. H., Freeman, J. D., Fulzele, S. et al. 2010, "Effect of whole-body vibration on bone properties in aging mice", Bone, v. 47, no. 4, pp. 746–755.
  8. Von Stengel, S., Kemmler, W., Engelke, K. et al. 2011, "Effects of whole body vibration on bone mineral density and falls: results of the randomized controlled ELVIS study with postmenopausal women", Osteoporosis Int., v. 22, no. 1, pp. 317–325.
  9. Krainak, K., Riley, D., Wu, J. at al. 2012, "Frequencydependent effects of vibration on physiological systems: experiments with animals and other human surrogates", Industrial health, v. 50, pp. 343–353.
  10. Judex, S., Rubin, C., Judex, S. 2010, "Is bone formation induced by high-frequency mechanical signals modulated by muscle activity?", J. Musculoskelet Neuronal. Interact, v. 10, no. 1, pp. 3–11.
  11. Lynch, M. A., Brodt, M. D., Silva, M. J. 2010, "Skeletal effects of whole-body vibration in adult and aged mice", J Orthop Res., v. 28, pp. 241–247.
  12. Mechanical Vibration – Measurement and evaluation of human exposure to hand transmitted vibration, Part 1: General Requirements Medicine. Mechanical Vibration and Shock. 2001, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 5349-1., London (British standard), 24 p.
  13. Mechanical Vibration and Shock-Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration-Part1: General Requirements. 1997, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 2631–1: 1985 (E), Geneva, Switzerland, 28 p.
  14. Mechanical Vibration and Shock-Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration-Part 2: Continuous and shock induced vibration in buildings (1 to 80 Hz). 1997, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 2631–2: 1985 (E)., Geneva, Switzerland, 10 p.
  15. Ozcivici, E., Luu, Y., Adler, B. 2010, "Mechanical signals as anabolic agents in bone", Nat Rev Rheumatology, v. 6, no. 1, pp. 50–59.
  16. Paschold, H. W., Mayton, A. G., 2011, "Whole-body vibration: Building Awareness in SH&E", American Society of Safety Engineers. Occupation Hazards, v. 54, no. 4, pp. 30–35.
  17. Rubin C., McLeod K. 1994, “Promotion of bone ingrowth by frequency-specific, low-amplitude mechanical strain”, Clinical Orthopedy, Vol. 298, pp. 165 – 174.
  18. Rubin, C., Turner, S., Bain, S. C. at al. 2001, "Low mechanical signals strengthen long bones", Nature, no. 412, pp. 603–604.
  19. Seibel, M. P., Robins, S. P., Belezikian, J. P. 2006, Dynamics of bone and cartilage metabolism, 2nd Edition. New York : Elsevier, 919 p.
  20. Sehmisch, S., Galal, R., Kolios, L. et al. 2009, "Effects of low-magnitude, high-frequency mechanical stimulation in the rat osteopenia model", Osteoporos Int., v. 20, pp. 1999–2008.
  21. Wang, Y., Azais, T., Robin, M. et al. 2012, "The predominant role of collagen in the nucleation, growth, structure and orientation of bone apatite", Nature Materials, v. 11, pp. 724–733.
  22. Abercromby, A. F., Amonette, W. E., Layne, C. S. et al. 2007, "Vibration exposure and biodynamic responses during whole-body vibration training", Med. Sci. Sports Exercises, v. 39, pp. 1794–1800.