State Institution «Institute for Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine», Kyiv
Introduction. The implementation of nanoparticles (NP) of cadmium compounds in production provides for a need to study mechanisms of action both at the cellular level and at the level of organs and systems, determining biomarkers of their effect, especially as compared to an ionic type.
The aim of the study was a comparative assessment of changes in hematological parameters of experimental animals in conditions of a prolonged exposure to NPs of CdS of different size and cadmium chloride.
Materials and methods. The study was conducted on Wistar male rats in a mature age, weighing 160–180 g, whom intraperitoneally weregiven NHs of CdCl2 and CdS of 4–6 nm and 9–11 nm size in the dose of 0,08 mg/kg/day, calculated by cadmium. Toxic effects were evaluated after 30 injections (1,5 months), 60 injections (3 months), and in 1,5 months after ceasing the exposure. The blood of animals was taken immediately after decapitation. The study was performed using a hematological analyzer ABX MICROS 60.
Results. The exposure to cadmium compounds resulted in significant morphological and functional changes in rats’ blood cells, characterized by the decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte cell lesion (decrease in the erythrocyte count, mean erythrocyte volume and increase in the rate of heterogeneity of red blood cells), leukocyte cell number (growth of the relative and absolute number of granulocyte of white blood cells and reducing the number of lymphocytes) and platelets (growth of the thrombocrit, average platelet volume and index of platelets’ heterogeneity). As compared to the ionic type of cadmium (CdCl2), NP of CdS caused more significant disorders of the studied parameters. In particular, more pronounced changes of cells of the erythrocyte number, hemoglobin and platelet counts were observed after effect of NPs of CdS of 4–6 nm size, while the NPs of CdS of 9–11 nm size caused significant changes in cells of the leucocyte number. One month after the cessation of the exposure the recovery of morphological and functional parameters of cells of the leucocyte number were found, partial recovery of the platelet counts, insignificant recovery of cells of the erythrocyte number, pointing to a greater sensitivity of red sprout to the action of cadmium compounds.
Conclusions. When conducting toxicological studies on cadmiumcontaining nanoparticles and nanomaterials it is necessary to investigate changes in hematological parameters of blood of experimental animals in order to assess peculiarities of their effect on the body, to define risks and to develop preventive measures against their negative effect.
Key words: cadmium, nanoparticles, haematological parameters, hematotoxic effect