1P. L. Shupik NationalMedicalAcademy of Post-graduate Education, Ukraine, Kiev State
2Institution "Institute for Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine", Kiev
Introduction. Ukrainian industry of solid biofuels is actively developing in recent years due to continuos request for alternative fuels. The production of the most number of the energy from biomass is related on solving some technical problems, including those of preventing the environment pollution. Waste from agricultural and forestry industries, municipal waste can be additional energy sources and used as a raw material for production of liquid and gaseous fuels.
Objective: The study of hygienic peculiarities of work conditions in production of biofuels from waste agricultural material (straw, wood) and developing preventive measures.
Materials and methods. The studies on microclimatic parameters, concentrations of dust in the working zone air, the disperse composition of dust in the work environment, trace element composition of dust, microbial contamination in technological processes at enterpriseas for biofuel production from waste agricultural materials (straw, wood) have been conducted. Results. It is established that the parameters of temperature and humidity at most workplaces do not meet the regulatory standards; the concentration of microorganisms in the waste material (straw and wood chips) range from 6,0 · 103 CFU/g to 1,8 · 105 CFU/g. Pellets from rape straw were 7,5 · 103 CFU/g. The raw material from wheat straw contained 7,5 · 104 CFU/g, the raw material from wooden chips – 1,7 · 104 CFU/g and from rape straw – 1,8 · 105CFU/g.The dust disperse analysis showed that the air of the working area the general number of particles ranged from 3200 to 14 000. The largest number of particles was in the size from 20–25 microns to 35–40 microns. In the study of chemical elements in the breathing zone of workers it was found significantly higher concentrations of metals in the air of the work employment: Na, K, Ca, Cd, Cu.
Conclusion. The straw from different crops and forest wastes, when used in granules and pellets, can be promising waste as a biofuel for Ukraine. When processing the vegetable raw material into solid fuels the combined effect of physical, chemical and biological factors of the production environment is taking place. The availability of high concetrations of dust and chemical elements in ultra dispersive state in the working zone air can be considered a potential risk factor in occurrence of work-related and occupational diseases for employees of enterprises, engaged in production of granules and pellets from plant material.
Key words: occupational health, energy, waste agricultural products