Ukrainian research institute of industrial medicine, Krivoy Rog
Introduction. The number of teachers in Ukraine is about 586,6 thousands. The basis of the teacher’s work is a need to talk a lot, read in voice, even sing, which can cause a pathology of a vocal apparatus. According to statistics observed the morbidity of the vocal apparatus in teachers has increased from 30–40 % in the sixties of the XX century to 55–60 % at the beginning of the XXI century.
Purpose of research – to estimate hygienic conditions of teachers’ work in general educational establishments.
Materials and methods. Hygienic studies of work conditions by indices of severity and intensity of work, microclimate, noise, dust and chemicals, microbiological parameters and duration of the voice load were conducted at workplaces of teachers of educational institutions in Krivoy Rog by standard methods, metrologically tested instruments and equipment. The evaluation of indices was made according to the Order № 248 of 08.04.2014 of DSNtaP (Standards) "Hygienic classification of work by indices of hazard and danger of the work environment, severity and intensity of the work process".
Results. The teachers’ work by indices of intensity is referred to Class 2 of the permissible level. By indices of strain the teachers’ work is referred to 3rd degree of Class 3. The duration of the voice load per week varies considerably, depending on the volume and voice tone, noise level in the classroom, a discipline which is taught, sex and temperament of the teacher, volume of material, which is taught, thematic direction of lessons, and ranges from (6,49 ± 0,06) at the lesson on chemistry to (10,93 ± 1,20) for mathematical disciplines (algebra, geometry) and makes on the average (9,49 ± 1,63) hours, and according to DSNtaP refers to 1st Class of the optimal.
The total number of hours with the strain for the vocal apparatus during a week for the Director of the school makes (22,75 ± 0,80) hours, which according to DSNtaP is referred to 3rd Class, 1st degree of harmfulness. Parameters of the microclimate at workplace of teachers, both in warm and cold seasons, vary greatly, due to the location of the room (floor, corner room, installation of windows), availability or nonavailability of the central heating, and is referred to 1st degree of 3rd Class of harmfulness. During work activity a teacher can be exposed to dust, mainly of fibrogenic character and to harmful chemicals of 2nd Class. The noise level at workplace of teachers varies greatly, depending on the technological process in the classroom and the work, which is performed, and ranges from 54 dB, when performing an independent work by students, to 89 dB during collective answers by students to questions of the teacher. So, the equivalent noise level is 85 dBA, 1st degree, 3rd Class of harmfulness. In the study of sanitary and microbiological indices of the working zone air in the classroom, it is found that there is a gradual (during a work shift) pollution of the working zone air by bacteria within hygienic standards.
Conclusions. Work conditions of teachers of secondary schools do not always meet hygienic requirements to work intensity, related to 3rd degree 3 of 3rd Class of harmfulness, microclimate – 1st degree, 3rd Class, noise – to 1st degree, 3rd Class of harmfulness. The duration of a voice load for a teacher per week varies significantly and ranges from (6,49 ± 0,06) to (10,93 ± 1,20) with the average (9,49 ± 1,63) hours, referring to 1st Class of the optimum. For director it makes (22,75 ± 0,80) hours, referring to 3rd Class 3, 1st degree of harmfulness, and for a primary school teacher, who simultaneously is a by-worker of a group for the extended day – (27,52 ± 3 54) hours, referring to 2nd degree, 3rd Class of harmfulness.
Key words: working conditions, teachers of secondary schools, duration of a voice load, harmful production factors, severity and intensity of work