ISSN 2223-6775 Ukrainian journal of occupational health Vol.16, No 4, 2020
Hygienic evaluation of pesticide application in using injection sprayers (literature review)
Borysenko A.A.1, Antonenko A.M.1, Shpak B.I.2 , Omelchuk S.T.3, Bardov V.G.1
1 Hygiene and ecology department No 1 of Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv
2 «Syngenta» LCC, Kyiv
3 Hygiene and ecology Institute of Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv
Full article (PDF), UKR
Introduction. The availability of pesticides and other foreign chemicals in food, drinking water and air poses an immediate threat to human health. Implementing an effective policy on reducing adverse effects of pesticides, while maintaining high crop yields, is a major challenge today.
The aim of the study was to analyze data on the possibility of reducing the risk of pesticide application by using injection sprayers.
Results. The most significant factors influencing the magnitude of occupational and non-occupational risks, working conditions and pollution levels when applying pesticides are dispersion and homogeneity, drug drift, evaporation. It is established that the most attractive from the economic point of view is the spray dispersion of 100-300 μm of slit sprayers. In the use of fine droplet sprayers special attention should be paid to individual respiratory protection as there is a risk of deep penetration of pesticide’s fine particles into the lungs, up to the alveoli. A new design of injectors with low drift provides for passing the liquid through a small hole in the chamber, reducing the spray pressure. Under favorable weather conditions, the problem of pesticide drift can be minimized if chemicals are used with proper selection and operation of the equipment. It is noted that it is necessary to avoid the formation of drops with a diameter of less than 80-100 μm. Injector sprayers with a stable-controlled spray spectrum make it possible to obtain at least 90% of drops most appropriate to the type of a pesticide, the cultivated crop and the phase of its development, to technical and natural conditions of application. In the case of low humidity and high temperatures in pesticide application, there should be chosen sprayers forming larger droplets in order to reduce evaporation and drift.
Conclusion. Since it is not possible to fully avoid the risk of pesticide application in agriculture, it is extremely important to identify hazardous and high-risk formulations, technologies, equipment, which will minimize the risk by making management decisions using recommendations to ban pesticides, certain technologies, aimed at development of application regulations, use of the most effective means of protection.
Key words: pesticides, working conditions, occupational risk, type of spraying, bystander’s risk, dispersion, biological efficiency.
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