State Institution "Institute for Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine", Kyiv
Introduction. The introduction of cadmium nanoparticles (NP) in production makes it necessary to study the mechanism of their action both at the cellular level and at the level of organs and systems, to determine biomarkers of their effects, especially as comparing to their ionic forms.
The aim of the study was – to compare the content of micro and macro elements in the liver and kidneys of experimental animals after exposure to cadmium sulfide NP and cadmium chloride.
Materials and methods. The study was conducted on mature male Wistar rats 160–180 g, intraperitoneally injected with CdS NP of 4–6 nm of 9–11 nm size as well as CdCl2 in 0,08 mg/kg/day dose adjusted to cadmium. Toxic effects were evaluated after 30 injections (1,5 months), 60 injections (3,0 months) and in the post-exposure period (1,5 months after cessation of the exposure).
Results. In the liver of experimental animals the most intensive accumulation of cadmium was observed after exposure to CdCl2, especially in the post-exposure period. There was a higher content of cadmium after exposure to CdS NP–6 nm, as compare to CdS NP 9–11 nm. Along with the increase in the cadmium content in the liver, the growth of the content of copper, iron (more intensively with CdCl2), iron, and lower selenium levels were recorded (especially for CdS NP 4–6 nm). Significant accumulation of cadmium was recorded in the kidneys, especially in the post-exposure period, which can indicate an intensive elimination from the body. A significant accumulation of cadmium was recorded in the kidneys, especially in the post-exposure period, which can point to an intensive elimination from the body. The prolonged exposure to cadmium compounds also led to the increase of copper levels and decrease in iron and selenium levels in the kidneys. The most significant changes were recorded after exposure to CdS NP, especially of 4–6 nm size, as compared to CdCl2. The intensive accumulation of cadmium and imbalance of trace elements can play a leading role in hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of cadmium compounds in nano- and ionic form.
Conclusions. Determination of the content of cadmium, macro- and microelements in the inner organs allows assessing cadmium toxicokinetics in the body, predicting the pathogenetic features of its toxic effects, especially in the post-exposure period, as well as studying the peculiarities of the pathogenesis of its organotoxic action.
Key words: Cadmium, Nanoparticles, Liver, Kidneys, Zinc, Selenium, Copper, Iron, Calcium