Chumayeva J. V., Golikova V. V., Ogulenko A. P., Shafran L. M.
MODELING OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE TASKS ON DIFFERENTIATION OF VISUAL SIGNALS IN THE "IMPOSED RHYTHM" MODE
Ukrainian Research Institute of Transport Medicine Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine
Full article (PDF), RUS
Background. In psychophysiological studies on solving a wide range of tasks of various complications on temporal relationships, such as the rate of information processing, mobility of nervous processes, degree of fatigue, problems of methodological character are often detected. This is due to inability to correctly assess individual differences in parameters, characterizing the increase of the response time and the number of errors with due account of the complexity of the problem, as well as the instability of the obtained correlations of these parameters with external indicators. The studies of individual differences are promising, both in terms of understanding procedures of the information processes and search for their psychophysiological correlates. One of perspective methods of the structural simulation are models of latent changes, in particular, time choice reaction analysis by W. Hick method, making it possible to analyze temporal processes in the presence of a small number of data. However, despite the positive properties and simplicity, it almost did not receive application in psychophysiology. The difficulties are in interpretation of the obtained models of latent changes, based on theoretical assumptions and experimental data.
The purpose. To develop a dynamic model of the effectiveness of differentiated sensor-motor reaction in conditions of the increasing "imposed rhythm" mode and study its relationship with the individual-typological peculiarities and mechanisms of regulation of psychomotor activity.
Results. A number of relatively independent parameters have been defined, characterizing the initial state of readiness to complicated perceptual – motor activity, the intensity of the increase in the number of errors and the time for test with the complication of the task. Based on estimation of the number and time of increasing the number of errors there have been distinguished two leading mechanisms of perceptual – motor activity regulation. One of them is based on mainly the emotional evaluation of the degree of success of a given behavioral act, and the other – on attentive-cognitive function of receiving and processing of the information as a central link, combining indices, associated with the exact coordination of perceptual and motor acts. The correlative relations have been established between psychophysiological functions, studied by the complex program (a battery of tests).
Conclusion. The studied parameters are combined into a unified three-factor exponential model, making it possible to more clearly differentiate the character of the individual differences in solving complicated tasks, reproducing elements of the operator's activity.
Key words: a differentiated sensor-motor reaction, mobility of nervous processes, mechanisms of regulation, individually-typological peculiarities, mathematical modeling, evaluation criteria
- Ushakov, I. B., Bogomolov, Yu. A. Kukushkin. 2010, Patterns of Operators’ functional states; Department of Biological Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences. Moscow : Nauka, 390 p. (in Russian).
- Kalnish, V. V., Pyshnov, G. Y., Maltsev, A. V., Kraso tin E. V. 2014, Characterisctics of the dynamics in reactions persons inclined and resistant to development of the monotonia state in operator’s activity, no. 4 (381), pp. 104–114 (in Russian).
- Mitina, O. V. 2008, "Modeling latent changes, using structural equations", Experimental Psychology, v. 1, no. 1, pp.131–148 (in Russian)
- Ostapenko, R. I. 2013, "Structural modeling in psychology and pedagogy: problems of science and education", Perspectives in science and education, no. 2, pp. 49–60 (in Russian).
- Dodonova, Yu., Dodonov, Yu.S. 2013, "To the problem of the choice of the model on evaluation of individual differences in the latent growth trajectory", Psychological Studies, v. 6, no. 27, pp. 3 [URL: http:// psystudy.ru (date of circulation: 02/04/2015)., (in Russian)]
- King, A. J. 2005, "Multisensory integration: strategies for synchronization", Curr. Biol., v. 15, no. 9, pp. R 339–341.
- Ikumi, N. , SotoFararo, S. 2014, "Selective attention modulates the direction of audiovisual temporal recalibration" PLoS, v. 9, Issue 7, pp. 1–8. e99311 [doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099311].
- Hick, W. E. 1952, "On the rate of gain of information", Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, v. 4, no. 1, pp. 11–26 [doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/17470215208416600].
- Jensen, A. R. 1987, Individual differences in the Hick paradigm, Speed of information processing and intelligence (Ed. by P.A. Vernon), Norwood. New York. : Ablex, pp. 101–175.
- Psychophysiological professional selection of seafarers. 2002, Guidance (Methodical instructions (MI 7.7.4.09302). Kyiv : Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine, 27 p. (in Russian).
- Conduction of psychophysiological occupational selection of candidates for training in higher educational institutions of the Ministry of Ukraine on problems of Emergencies and Population Protection from the Consequences of the Chornobyl Catastrophe in Ukraine: CF 126.96.36.1992006. – [Acting since 07.11.2006]. Kyiv: Official publication, 36 p.(in Ukrainian).
- Makarenko, N. V. 1991, Human psychophysiological functions and operators’ work. Kiev : Naukova Dumka, 216 p. (in Russian).
- Methods of diagnosis and measurement of personality mental conditions, 2004, Author and compiler A. O. Prokhorov. Moscow : PER SE,172 p. (in Russian).
- Sobchik, L. N. 2000, Introduction to psychology of a personality. Moscow : STIICP, 512 p. (in Russian).
- Netudykhatka, O. Yu. 1987, "The role of critical flicker fusion frequencies in the assessment of the intensity of work in seamen", J. of Ophthalmology, no. 5. pp. 300–303 (in Russian).
- Nebylitsyn, V. D. 1990, Selected works on psychology.Moscow : Pedagogika, 408 p. (in Russian).
- Lapach, S. N., Hubenko, A. V., Babich, N. P. 2000, Statistical methods in biomedical research with the Exel use. Kiev : Morion, 320 p. (in Russian).
- Shipunov, A. B., Baldin, E. M., Volkov, P. A. et al. 2016, Illustrative statistics. Use R!. The electronic textbook, 293 p. [https://cran.rproject.org/doc/ contrib/Shipunovrbook.pdf] , (in Russian)
- Chumayeva, Y. V., Ogulenko, A. P. Shafran, L. M. 2013. Methodological approaches to diagnostics of fatigue in solving tasks on psychological rehabilitation, Sci, Visnyk of National SouthUkrainian Natіonal University named by K. D. Ushinsky, no. 9–10, pp. 220 – 230. (n Russian).
- Makarenko, M. V., Lizogub, V. S. 2011, Ontogenesis of human psychophysiological functions. Cherkasy : Vertical, 256 p. (in Ukrainian).
- Bernstein, N. A. 1990. Physiology of movements, and activity (Ed. by O. G. Gasenko). Moscow : Nauka, 495 p. (in Russian).
- Kokun, A. M. 2004, Optimization of adaptive human abilities: psychophysiological aspect of the activity provision, Monograph. Kyiv : Millennium, 265 p. (in Ukrainian).
- Anokhin, P. K. 1973, The principles of functions systemic organization. Moscow : Nauka, pp. 5–61 (in Russian).