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1(34) 2013

Marchenko M. L., Varyvonchyk D. V.


SI «Institute for Occupational Health of NAMS of Ukraine», Kyiv

Full article (PDF), UKR

The analysis of literature data on studying molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of malignant mesothelioma, caused by the exposure to asbestos and to its various types has been made, covering, also, the role of SV-40 virus in the pathogenesis of this pathology. 1) There is no direct cause-effect relation between asbestos exposure, occurrence of mutations in cell-targets (epithelium of respiration organs, mesothelium) and development of malignant neoplasm, associated with prevalence of epidemic mechanisms of carcinogenesis, caused by the isolated asbestos effect on cell macrophages with chronic and inten-sive activation of free-radical mechanisms of the carcinogenesis. However the reasons of induction of different frequency of malignant neoplasm, exposed to different types of asbestos (crokodolite > > amosite > > chrysotile), are remained up to be not clear. 2) The reasons of occurrence of malignant mesothelioma in individuals, which have never been exposed to asbestos, are not clarified as well as mechanisms of resistance in occurrence of cancer pathology in individuals, long-term and inten¬sively exposed to asbestos. 3) The studies show the co-carcinogenic role of SV-40 virus in development of malignant meso¬thelioma at the background of asbestos exposure, however the probability of initiation and progression of carcinogenesis by SV-40 virus without part of asbestos is still not defined. 4) It is proved that gene polymorphism is the reason of the increased sensibility of the body to development of cancer pathology, however the role of the genotype combination, availability of the latent infection with SV-40 and human exposure to different types of asbestos, is remained unexplained. 5) Many scientists prove that asbestos fibers influence mesothelium, immunocompetent cells, alveliocytes of the II type, macrophages, however it is not yet enough clear in what way the interaction of lymphocyte-macrophage chain with mesothelium cells is taking place, and how they effect the processes of malignant transformation of the mesothelium. So, there is a need in further studying the role of intercellular interactions in exposure to asbestos. 6) There are certain gaps in the knowledge about mechanisms and pathogenesis of malignant transformation of mesothelium cells as well as why in cells of the mesothelium, affected by asbestos fibers, apoptosis is not developed and they continue to cumulate genome and chromosome mutations, which are remained not to be recognized by immunocompetent cells. So, further detailed studies are needed in order to establish earlier markers of the carcinogenic process in human mesothelium and to scientifically ground means of individual prevention of the mentioned pathology in individuals, occupational exposed to asbestos.

Keywords: malignant mesothelioma, asbestos, SV-40 virus, pathogenesis


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