ISSN 2223-6775 Ukrainian journal of occupational health Vol.16, No 4, 2020
Modern approaches to hygienic regulation of pesticides in the working zone air
Yastrub T.A., Kirsenko V.V., Hryhorieva K.V., Dontsova D.A.
State Institution “Kundiiev Institute of Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine”, Kyiv
Full article (PDF), UKR
Introduction. Maximum Acceptable Concentration in the working zone air (MACw.z.a.) is the main standard in complex hygienic regulation of pesticides, which is used to control the air of the working environment, and compliance with which guarantees safe working conditions in their application. However, a traditional approach to experimentally determined hygienic standard, despite its indisputable advantage in terms of scientific validity and high reliability, is an extremely time-consuming and a long-term procedure, and taking into account a wide range of pesticides – it is also almost impracticable and unreasonably expensive. This creates a huge deficit in traditionally formed regulatory framework of pesticides, one of the most important indicators of the safety of the work environment – the content of pesticides in the working zone air, and call for finding alternative solutions.
Purpose of the study – to develop an approach to establishing hygienic standards for pesticides in the working zone area – inhalation equivalents of the acceptable exposure levels (IE AEL).Materials and methods. There have been analyzed scientific reports of the European Food Safety Organization on substantiation of acceptable operator exposure levels (AOEL), legislative and regulatory documents of Ukraine on hygienic regulation of pesticides in the working zone air. The analysis makes it possible to outline ways for harmonization of methodological approaches to the hygienic standardization of pesticides in the air of the working zone, the purpose of which is to preserve the database of domestic data on hygienic regulation of pesticides in production and the environment with careful analysis of toxicological properties of active ingredients of pesticides, being the basis for definition of AOEL. Results. As a result of the research a way for definition of inhalation equivalents of the acceptable exposure level (IE AEL) has been proposed using a Fluri formula, in which the amount of a substance in the air is combined with the absorbed effective inhalation dose. In this, an internal permissible dossage is transformed into a permissible concentration in the working zone air with account of human physiological parameters (body weight, respiratory volume), the duration of work shift, and that the absorbed dose of a substance when inhaled is taken as 100% of the exposure dose. The comparative analysis of IE AEL values with experimentally established MACw.z.a. has confirmed the applicability of the proposed algorithm for hygienic regulation of safe use of pesticides.Conclusions. The proposed method of determining IE AEL, based on the wide analysis and volume of toxicological data, increases the reliability of standards from the standpoint of safety for the health of workers. The use of this method will help to decrease the material costs and reduce the number of studies using laboratory animals according to the bioethical concept of three «R» (Reduction, Replacement and Refinement); in the short term to revise a standard when appear new toxicological or epidemiological data on a pesticide; improve the practice of pesticide application in Ukraine, for providing high protection level of workers' health.
Key words: pesticides, inhalation equivalent of the acceptable exposure level, hygienic regulation, working zone air.
- Metodicheskiye ukazaniya po ustanovleniyu oriyentirovochnykh bezopasnykh urovney vozdeystviya vrednykh veshchestv v vozdukhe rabochey zony:, utv. MZ SSSR 04.11.85 g (1985), [Guidelines for the establishment of approximate safe levels of exposure to harmful substances in the air of the working area: approved, Ministry of Health of the USSR on 04.11.85], No 4000-85, Мoscow, Russia.
- Metodicheskiye ukazaniya po gigiyenicheskoy otsenke novykh pestitsidov: utv. MZ SSSR 13.03.87 No 4263-87. (1988), [Guidelines for the hygienic assessment of new pesticides, approved, Ministry of Health of the USSR 03/13/87 No. 4263-87], Kiev, Ukraine.
- EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), (2014), “EFSA Guidance on the assessment of exposure of operators, workers, residents and bystanders in risk assessment for plant protection products”, EFSA Journal, 12 (10), 3874. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3874
- Dopustymi dozy, kontsentratsiyi, kilʹkosti ta rivni vmistu pestytsydiv u silʹsʹkohospodarsʹkiy syrovyni, kharchovykh produktakh, povitri robochoyi zony, atmosfernomu povitri, vodi vodoymyshch, grunti. Derzhavni sanitarni pravyla ta normy DSanPiN 188.8.131.52.3.4-000-2001: zatv. Postanovoyu No137 Holovnoho derzhavnoho sanitarnoho likarya Ukrayiny vid 20 veresnya 2001. (2001), [Permissible doses, concentrations, quantities and levels of pesticides in agricultural raw materials, food, air of the working area, atmospheric air, water of reservoirs, soil. State sanitary rules and norms DSanPiN 184.108.40.206.3.4-000-2001, approved, Resolution No137 of the Chief State Sanitary Physician of Ukraine of September 20, 2001], Kiev, Ukraine.
- Dovidnyk “Pestytsydy”. (2019), [Handbook "Pesticides"], (ed. Omelʹchuk S.T.), Interservis, Kyiv, Ukraine.
- ECHA (European Chemicals Agency). (2017), Recommendation no. 14 of the BPC Ad hoc Working Group on Human Exposure. Default human factor values for use in exposure assessments for biocidal products (revision of HEEG opinion 17 agreed at the Human Health Working Group III on 12 June 2017).
- Transportuvannya, zberihannya ta zastosuvannya pestytsydiv u narodnomu hospodarstvi: DSanPiN 220.127.116.11.001-98: zatv. Postanovoyu No1 Holovnoho derzhavnoho sanitarnoho likarya Ukrayiny vid 03.08.1998 [Transportation, storage and use of pesticides in the national economy, DSanPiN 18.104.22.168.001-98, approved, Resolution No1 of the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of Ukraine of 03.08.1998], Kyiv, Ukraine.
- Hihiyenichna klasyfikatsiya pestytsydiv za stupenem nebezpechnosti: DSanPiN 8.8.1.002-98: zatv. MOZ Ukrayiny vid 28.09.1998 r. No2. (1989), [Hygienic classification of pesticides by degree of danger: DSanPiN 8.8.1.002-98, approved, Ministry of Health of Ukraine dated September 28, 1998 No 2], Kyiv, Ukraine.
- Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market and repealing Council Directive 79/117/EEC and 91/414/EEC. URL: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:32009R1107.
- Prodanchuk MG, Sergeev SG, Lepyoshkin IV, e.a. (2015), “Analysis of registration requirements for occupational and public health in the application of plant protection products in the EU and Ukraine”, Suchasni problemy toksykolohiyi, kharchovoyi ta khimichnoyi bezpeky, 3, 5-13.
- Directive 2009/128/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of October 2009 establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides”. (2009), Official Journal of the European Communities, L 309. 71-86.
- Chmil V.D. (2014), “On the problem of compliance of domestic standards regulating state testing of plant protection products, their registration and use in agriculture with the requirements of the European Union”, Suchasni problemy toksykolohiyi, kharchovoyi ta khimichnoyi bezpeky, 1,2,10-26.
- EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). (2015), “Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance diquat”, EFSA Journal, 13 (11), 4308. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4308
- EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). (2005), “Conclusion regarding the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Pirimiphos-methyl”, EFSA Scientific Report, 44, 1- 53. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2005.44r