Ukrainian Research Institute of Industrial Medicine, Kryvyi Rig
Introduction. The technologies for conducting blasting in open mining are now re-orientated on the use of explosives not containing trinitrotoluol, providing for higher level safety and reducing negative impact on the environment. Positive changes do not fully solve a problem of bringing indices of production factors to acting hygienic standards. This makes it necessary to provide health protection of workers, covering, also, organizational and medical-preventive measures.
Purpose of the study. To develop organizational and medical prophylactic measures, directed at reducing risk of occupational and occupation-related diseases in workers, engaged in blasting in open mining, from the impact of work environmental factors. Materials and methods. Based on the data analysis of work conditions and morbidity rates in workers, engaged in blasting in open mining over the period observations within 2003–2014, scientific grounding and substantiation of organizational measures and measures on medical prevention of occupational and occupation-related diseases have been made.
Results. Based on the assessment of work conditions and epidemiological studies an improved system of organizational and health care measures has been grounded, created with account of the current trends and directions in prevention of occupational and occupation-related diseases in workers, engaged in blasting in open-cast mines. Periodic medical examinations should be carried out stage by stage, with emphasis on detection of initial manifestations of the most prevailed diseases, assessment of clinical course of diseases and registration of parameters of health status of workers in dynamics. Taking into account a significant number of “explosive” companies in Ukraine a promising line of research is to evaluate effectiveness of preventive work on the basis of epidemiological studies, showing a situation with temporary morbidity, prevalence of pathology by the results of medical examinations. Conclusion. The provisions of medical prevention and organizational measures, able to improve effectiveness of preventive work on the basis of the results of assessment of work conditions and epidemiological studies, are summarized. The prevention should be realized through improvement of organization of medical examinations, using the data on the psychophysiological assessment, monitoring the state of adaptation, clinical examination, resuming an interaction between health care institutions and the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service on provision of assistance in professional pathology for workers, increasing responsibility of authorities and interest in workers in health promotion, improving work and rest schedules with due account of modern views and achievements.
Key words: medical prevention, occupational disease, blasters