Sokolova M. P.
PECULIARITIES OF OCCUPATIONAL MORBIDITY OF CHEMICAL GENESIS AMONG WORKERS IN UKRAINE
SI "Institute for Occupational Health of NAMS of Ukraine", Kyiv
Full article (PDF), UKR
Introduction. Working conditions in production are defined by quantitative characteristics of harmful factors, which can adversely affect workers’ health. One of such widely-spread factors is a chemical one, with which hundreds of thousands workers are in contacts. It is known that work under the influence of chemical substances is a risk factor, damaging the workers’ health, and provoking development of occupational diseases.
Purpose. To analyze occupational morbifity, caused by chemical substances in Ukraine, over 2000-2014 period.
Materials and methods. The data of 2177 "Cards for recording occupational diseases (poisonings)" have been analyzed, covering diagnoses on occupational diseases of chemical origin, sex and age of patients, experience of work in hazardous conditions, factors causing occupational diseases of chemical etiology, and circumstances thereafter.
Results. It has been revealed that occupational diseases of chemical origin are recorded in almost all kinds of economic activity, which is associated with a wide range of industries and using various chemicals, ranging from 0,9 to 5,7 % of the total number of annually defined occupational diseases. The largest share in the structure of chemical pathology is taken by respiratory diseases (17,5–75,6 %); acute intoxications up to 3,9–40,8 %; chronic intoxications – 5,9–20,0 %; cancer diseases – 4,4–14,1 %; trynitrotoluol cataract – 0,7–10,5 %; skin diseases –1,0–8,3 %. Occupational diseases of chemical etiology are recorded both in men and women. In 87–93 % cases the age of victims from chemical factors is 25–45 years, and work experience in hazardous conditions in 65–70 % cases makes 10–20 years. The imperfect technology and construction of devices (28–33 %), use of highly toxic substances (22–31 %), insufficiently effective operation of ventilation systems (12–15 %), imperfect or lack of personal protective equipment (15–20 %), violation of safety regulations (15–20 %) affect the formation of occupational pathology of chemical etiology. Also, high sensitivity of workers to selected chemicals should be taken into account.
Conclusion. Chemical pathology makes not a significant part in the general occupational morbidity, but its consequences can significantly affect employees. Therefore, in modern condictions, despite lack of appropriate financing for health protection and due to worsening health care of the working population, it is necessary to pay attention to important factors, which influence the development and prevention of occupational diseases, caused by chemical substances, to improve detection, diagnostics and recording of occupational diseases of chemical origin, sanitary-hygienic and engineering-technical control over working conditions.
Key words: occupational pathology of chemical genesis, chemical substances, harmful and dangerous work conditions
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