State Institution "Institute for Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine", Kyiv
Introduction. Physical development and growth of adolescents is one of priority criteria, which can be used for prognostication of their state of health in the further life. Students of vocational training schools (VTS) can be a cohort of higher health risk. Taking into account a role of this cohort of adolescents in the future country potential, a proper attention should be paid to this group, which, at present, is insufficient on the part of medical scientists.
Purpose of the study is to define peculiarities of physical development of adolescents, training in vocational schools in the city Kyiv for further studying their impact on the state of health and elaboration of preventive measures for risk decrease. Materials and methods. 395 adolescents (225 boys and 170 girls), aged 15–18, training in VTS of the city Kyiv, were taken part in the study. The morphofunctional development of the body was investigated by anthropometric indices – body length and mass, chest circumference, body mass index (BMI) as well as by muscular strength (MS) of hands and vital capacity of the lungs (VCL), by the unified method with the use of the standard instruments. BMI was assessed by the WHO criteria for children of the corresponding age and sex. The assessment of the physical development (PD) – by the degree of its harmony. A comparative analysis of the PD indices of students in VTS and children of the same age in Kiev was made, according to the national standards on PD (regional regression scales) and the literature data.
Results. There have been revealed gender and age peculiarities of PD in the examined cohort of students. It is established that their PD is differed from that of the schoolchildren of the city Kyiv. Among negative difference the attention should be paid on the high per cent of adolescents with disharmonic physical development: in the of group boys that made – 21–46 % (depending on age), in the group of girls – 29–43 % which is 1,1–1,7 times higher than in the cohort of schoolchildren. In the structure of disharmony in girls –a deficit of the body weight was prevailed; in boys almost in the same proportion – deficit of he body mass and excess weight. The functional possibilities of the muscular system and the function of the external respiration in students of VTS were decreased, irrespective of sex and age.
Conclusion. A cohort of students of VTS, mastering working professions, can be, in modern conditions, a cohort of high risk, including also, by their peculiarities in physical development, and demands a constant medical and social monitoring.
Key words: adolescents, vocational training schools, physical development, health risk