Bogomolets National Medical University, Kiev
Introduction. Nowadays, nanotechnologies and nanomaterials are being quickly introduced practically in all branches of industry and, so, the number of workers, having contacts with them in production conditions, is increasing. Nanoparticles and nanomaterials obtain the character of new global anthropogenic factor, which is characterized by a potential hazard for the population health and for the state of ecological systems.
Purpose of the study. To establish hygienic peculiarities of operators’ work conditions, related to obtaining nanopowders of silicides and nitrides of refractory oxygen-free metal compounds, clinical and laboratory examination of the digestive system and developing, on this base, preventive recommendations.
Materials and methods. Technological processes of thermal synthesis and highly energetic mechanical activation of composite nanopowders of titanium nitride and metal silicides. Hygienic assessment of physical factors (dust from nanopowders, noise, microclimate) at workplaces of operators. Physiologo-hygienic assessment of operators’ work. Definition of the intensity and strain of work. Clinical examination: determination of the activity of ALT, ACT, general bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose in blood. Untrasound examination of liver.
Results. It is established that operators’ work is related on the effect of physical factors of the work environment: chemical dust, noise, temperature, humidity, infra-red radiation; the content of nanoparticles in the working zone air is the leading factor. The working process of operators is related to Class 1 by the intensity of work, by the strain – to Class 3.1. It is shown that indices of ALT, ACT, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism have been increased.
Conclusion. The availability of nanocrystal powders of silicides of chromium, molybdenum, tantalum and titanium nitride is the leading production factor in the working zone air. The work of operators, by the hygienic normative 3.3.5-3.3.8; 6.6.1-08320012001 "Hygienic classification of work by indices of harmfulness and danger of the work environment, intensity and strain of the working process" is related to Class 3. The clinical assessment of the digestive system showed changes of ACT, ALT and decrease of the coefficient de Rytis. The increase of ALT, ACT was combined with changes of the lipid metabolism (hypercholesterinemia) and the carbohydrate metabolism (hyperglycemia). The use of the ultrasound diagnostics did not reveal any structural changes in liver in the examined group of workers. Based on the conducted hygienic and clinico-statistical methods there have been developed hygienic recommendations.
Key words: nanopowders, titanium nitride, silicides of molybdenum, chromium, tantalum, thermosynthesis, high energetic mechanic activation, hepatobiliary system