1 Ukrainian Military Medical Academy, Kyiv
2 Kundiiev Institute of Occupational Health of the NAMS of Ukraine, Kyiv
Introduction. Despite a significant number of articles devoted to the analysis of peculiarities of development of emotional burnout and chronic fatigue in representatives of professions with an increased level of danger, at present there has not yet been formed a stable opinion about the sufficient clarification of many issues of this problem, in particular, the determination of the structure of the relationships of various components of the emotional status of workers, especially with a different functional state of their body. This indicates the relevance and importance of a comprehensive study of aspects on formation of emotional burnout and chronic fatigue at different stages of the development of such states.
Purpose of the study - to reveal peculiarities of interconnections of components of the emotional state in combatants with different levels of manifestation of emotional burnout.
Methods and scope of the study. A total of 98 male servicemen aged 21 to 57 with injuries or illnesses received as a result of their participation in Joint Forces Operation (JFO) have been examined. The combatants were treated in a mobile hospital. To determine the emotional status and severity of manifestations of their emotional burnout, the following methods were used: a methodology "Diagnostics of emotional burnout in a personality" by V.V. Boiko and a SOPAS-8 method, which made it possible to assess the actual mental state of combatants by a combination of symptoms: mental well-being, feelings of strength and energy, desires for action, impulsive reactivity, feelings of mental anxiety or indignation, feelings of anxious expectation and fear, mental depression and exhaustion, suppressed mood.
Statistical analysis of the data was carried out by methods of nonparametric statistics: the Spearman correlation coefficient (p <0.05) was calculated with the use of a method of "correlation pleiades" and a preliminary classification of the state of servicemen by cluster analysis on three subgroups with "low", "medium" and "high" levels of adaptation potential (k-means method).
Results. To reveal peculiarities of formation of individual phases of burnout, the interrelationships of characteristics of the emotional state of representatives of individual studied groups were determined, which made it possible to identify the appropriate ways in formation of chronic fatigue, to highlight the existing states and mobile structures of the relationships of components of the emotional status in persons with "low", "medium" and "high” level of the adaptive potential.
A discussion on opinions of different authors connecting the degree of emotional burnout and chronic fatigue with occupational health, motivation, qualifications and other qualities of the human body was held.
It is shown that in people with some qualities, depending on the severity of the development of emotional burnout, the formation of the corresponding complexes of firmly connected components of the emotional state is observed, which contribute to the development and stabilization of the integral emotional status of combatants at a certain level. These interrelationships not only characterize the result of emotional transformations, development of chronic fatigue in servicemen who have been in the combat zone for a long time, but they also are signs of successful adaptation and rapid transformations in the human body during chronic exposure to combat stress factors.
Conclusion. With a long stay in the JFO zone, chronic fatigue of varying degree is developed in combatants, one of indicators of which is emotional burnout. Each of these stages with "low", "medium" and "high" levels of the adaptive potential is characterized by a corresponding structure of permanent and plastic connections between indicators of their emotional state.
A specific feature in development of chronic fatigue of a certain level is the presence of correlation pleiads combining the corresponding components of the emotional status of combatants. Each of these pleiads affects significantly the emotional state from the positive and negative sides and has a certain stabilizing function.
Moreover, with manifestations of the pronounced emotional burnout (stage of a high level of resistance), the negative coloring of the influence of the correlation pleiads prevails over the positive, and in the absence of sufficient development of such state, the power of the favorable effect of the existing positive centers in formation of the emotional state increases.
The availability of stable positive connections is found which, as a rule, is manifested in representatives of all studied subgroups between feelings: strength and energy, mental well-being and desire for action. The existence of such a fairly stable correlation framework, built from combinations of positively colored components of the emotional state in servicemen, the central of which is the feeling of strength and energy, may indicate the identity of psychological and physiological compensatory processes, occurring in formation of the mental state in combatants with different levels of emotional burnout.
Key words: chronic fatigue, emotional burnout, emotional state, adaptive potential, combatants, prolonged activity in combat conditions.