State Institution "Kundiiev Institute of Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine", Kyiv
Introduction. In Ukraine, the problem of lead hazards attracts special attention in connection with the active development of previously absent industries, among which the leading place is taken by the production of leadacid batteries and accumula tors and the smelting of secondary lead. The industrial aerosols that are formed and released into the air during the production and use of lead are characterized by the presence of nanoparticles. This creates conditions for risks to the health of workers and the population.
The purpose of the study was to study peculiarities of nanoparticle (NP) emission into the air when reproducing a model of the technological process of lead recovery in the experiment.
Materials and methods of the study. The emission of the air suspended particles air was studied using a "DAS 2702" diffusion aerosol spectrometer (AeroNanoTech). The size, shape, and structure of the NPs were determined by a dynamic light scat tering ("DinaSizer", Germany) and, also, by the raster scanning electron microscopy (REM, Tescan MIRA3 microscope). The chemical composition of substances was studied with atomicemission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma (AESISP) using the "Optima 2100 DV" (PerkinElmer, USA).
Results. The results of the research showed that almost all main stages of the process of lead recovery related to heating, melt ing, smelting and casting of lead are characterized by a high level of emission of lead nanoparticles into the air, which should be taken into consideration in hygienic assessment of working conditions and occupational risk as well as in development and introduction of preventive measures aimed at preserving the health of workers engaged in lead production.
Conclusion. It is established that the technological process of lead recovery is characterized by the release of suspended par ticles into the air, the concentration of which at different stages exceeds the background values by 2,6–6,4 times. It is proved that 88,2–95,1 % of all particles suspended in the air are with dimensions that are determined by the nanometer range (1–100 nm) with a maximum of their distribution in 5–10 nm, 10–15 nm and 15–20 nm fractions, respectively.
It is found that the increase in the emission of nanoparticles into the air is accompanied by the increase of lead concentration, which determines the basic physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles.
Key words: nanoparticles, emission into the air, lead recuperation, experimental model
ORCID ID of co-authors and their contribution to the preparation and writing of the article:
Lugovsky S.P. (ORCID ID 0000000239487026) - an understanding of the size, shape, structure of the LF and the structure of the filters by the method of REM; analysis of results of ophthalmology, formation of conclusions;
Demetska O.V. (ORCID ID 0000000281747813) - estimation of the emission of nanoparticles into the air of the working zone during the recovery of secondary lead with the help of the IPS aerosol spectrometer DAS 2702, AeroNanoTech, Russia;
Didenko MM (ORCID ID 0000000225402685) - assessment of the analysis of the results of ophthalmology, the formation of conclusions;
Melnik N.A. (ORCID ID 0000000312714476) - processing and analysis of results of ophthalmology, formation of conclusions; preparation of the material about the hand;
Movchan V.O. (ORCID ID 0000000267127976) - estimation of the emission of nanoparticles into the air of the working zone during the recovery of secondary lead by means of an IPS aerosol spectrometer DAS 2702, AeroNanoTech, Russia;
Andrushishina I.M. (ORCID ID 0000000158273384) - studying the chemical sample of air by atomic emission spectroscopy with inactively coupled plasma (AESIZP) using the "Ortima 2100 DV" nuclear power plant;
Skoryk MA - an understanding of the size, shape, structure of the LF and the structure of the filters by the method of REM.