Ukrainian Military Medical Academy, Kyiv
Introduction. An estimation of the influence of extreme factors of the external environment on humans is an extraordinarily issue of the present day. The importance of decision of this problem is conditioned by the fact that in the east of Ukraine for already three years along there are taken place battle collisions, the influence of which on servicemen is manifested both at physiological and on psychological levels. The analysis of modern literature shows that a problem of occupational stress, developed constantly in individuals, working in particular conditions, is the subject of studies of many scientists. However, new circumstances, related to the influence of the combination of stressful factors on servicemen, in conditions of a long-term battle conflict, were not highlighted in these papers. So, a deep study of this problem is important for individuals, taking part in АТО.
The aim of this work is the analysis of psychological similarity of some characteristics of work conditions in the group of factors, which reflect different aspects of staying in ATO conditions.
Materials and research methods. By means of a specially worked out questionnaire there have been surveyed 101 servicemen, aged from18 to 30, taking part in battle actions in the east of Ukraine. The estimation of each of the characteristics, mentioned in the questionnaire, was made in per cents of the maximally possible actions of these factors on each individual. The respondents did not estimate physical influence on the body, but its psychological effect.
Results. In order to arrange correctly the obtained results, the factors concerned were conditionally divided into some groups, showing different aspects of staying in the battle environment. Such groups have been distinguished: "physical", "informative", "anticipation" (foresight) and "organizational" Also, very important is a group of factors, affecting the stay in АТО, such as providing vital functions of servicemen. The data were conditionally divided in a few groups of factors: "domestic conditions", "living conditions", "sanitary-hygienic conditions" and "interpersonal contacts". As far as the results on the provision of vital activity of servicemen varied greatly, there have been distinguished two groups of persons - "hypersensitive" and "hyposensitive" with approximately identical reactions on the action of the analyzed factors. In order to define the similarity in the perception of different psychological characteristics a cluster analysis was applied and dendrograms were built for finding the degree of connection of individual sensations by the Pyrson criterion. It is found that the action of the investigated factors is forming under the effect of a number of psychological mechanisms, whose indicator is the presence of a row of clusters, which represent the action of every specific factor in total.
Conclusion. There have been distinguished different factors of the battle environment, affecting the healthy servicemen in the area of antiterrorist operations. It is found that the effect of selected factors on the degree of the nervous emotional strain is the action of the similarity of impressions of some of them. Practical recommendations have been proposed for decreasing a level of the negative effect of factors of the external environment on the psycho-emotional state of participants of antiterrorist operations.
Key words: adaptation, stress factors, battle actions, antiterrorist operations, psychophysiological state