SI “Kundiiev Institute of Occupational Health of the NAMS of Ukraine”, Kyiv
Introduction. In modern war, the variety of factors of the combat environment affecting the body of a military soldier, their strength and modality, the change in their rhythm and unpredictability depend on many reasons that have an integral effect on combatants. The problem of identifying objective and subjective reasons for formation of stress and establishment of hidden compensatory mechanisms for protecting the psyche of the military personnel under the direct influence of factors of the combat environment is relevant.
The purpose of this study is to identify the specificity of the action of integral factors of the combat environment and the establishment of possible compensatory mechanisms that manifest themselves in their interaction and directed at reducing the level of stressful effects on the military personnel.
Methods and the scope of investigations. A method of interviewing combatants outside the combat zone about their impressions on the influence of certain factors of the combat environment is used. The survey was conducted with 101 military personnel (men aged 18-35 years) using a specially designed questionnaire. A factor analysis of the obtained data and a correlation analysis of the identified integral factors were used.
Results and discussion. A preliminary analysis was conducted on the effect of two groups of factors: the “combat environment” (which consist of the following components: “physical”, “information”, “anticipation”, “organizational”) and provision of the “vital activity” (covering the following components: “conditions of life activity”, “sanitary and hygienic conditions”, “living conditions”, “comfort of interpersonal contacts”). To integrally reflect the action of each of the listed components of the work environment, a factor analysis of the data was carried out. Factor values reflect the level of the impact of each component of the combat environment. For the purpose of an in-depth analysis of the interaction of these components, representing the “combat environment” factor and the “life support” factor, the pair correlation coefficients of all pair combinations of the presented components were calculated. Interpretations of reliable correlations between the components of the analyzed factors were proposed. In particular, a negative relationship between the components of the “anticipation” and the “information” factors of the “combat environment” can be explained by functioning of such a protective mechanism of the psyche as a “similative projection”. The presence of a reliable negative correlation between “physical” and “informational” components can be explained by using the concept of “unrealistic optimism”, according to which people can be unrealistically optimistic in their judgments about the upcoming risks. It can be assumed that under conditions of staying in the combat zone, some positive compensatory properties of the functional behavior are formed in combatants, which play a protective role under the action of strong stress factors.
Reliable positive correlations between the components of “living conditions” and “socio-hygienic conditions” of the “vital activity” factor indicate that a combination of their positive sides leads to an improvement of the comfort staying in the combat zone, and negative sides - to its deterioration. A negative correlation between the components of the “living conditions” and the “quality of interpersonal contacts” indicates that good quality of interpersonal contacts compensates, to some extent, poor conditions of vital activity
The analysis of the components’ interaction of factors of the “combat environment” and provision of the “conditions of life activity” showed the availability of a great number of compensatory mechanisms, promoting the increase of the combat effectiveness of the armed forces units. The practical use of the comprehensive strengthening of the effect of these compensatory mechanisms will not only increase the combat effectiveness, but also preserve their health and life.
Conclusion. The availability of a group of powerful and positive in their action elements of the compensatory functional behavior of combatants in the war zone has been revealed. It is shown that the purposeful use of the established features in formation of the compensatory functional behavior will increase the combat effectiveness and preserve their health and life.
Key words: work environmental factors, combatants, compensatory behavior mechanisms.