State Institution «O. M. Marzeyev Institute of Public Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine», Kyiv
Introduction. Analysis of literature data and own researches shows that in the process of insolation of premises and territories, such conditions for production and living in ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can be created, which are accompanied not only by positive effects on human health and living conditions, but, also, carries a risk of non-melanoma skin cancer.
The aim of the study. To give a comprehensive hygienic assessment of the ultraviolet component of insolation of premises and territories on the basis of risk assessment.
Materials and methods of research. The domestic and foreign sources of information related to the scientific substantiation of different criteria of harmfulness of the sun UVR have been analyzed, such as: a ultraviolet index, maximum permissible levels , exposure and erythema-effective doses. Using a monitoring and the calculation data, the hygienic estimation of the sun UVR as a risk factor for the health of workers and the population was carried out according to the above criteria.
Results. The values of the UVR intensity in the geographical latitudes, characteristic for Ukraine, are given, as well as minimum erythematous doses (MED) in monthly and annual average calculations, taking into account the erythemic-effective action, depending on its spectral characteristics. Also, the calculated levels of the UVR of the B range with a three-hour insolation of some rooms and territories, the values of MED, ultraviolet index and maximum permissible level of the UVR for workers as well as the relative risk of non-melanoma human skin cancer in humans were determined.
It is shown that from March to September at the latitude of Kiev, the UV-index is more than 2, and in June-July this value reaches 7 and belongs to the "high category of exposure." It is found that during the whole year a human exposure at workplace in the open air, or indoors with open windows in direct sunlight at 45o of the northern latitude сan 3 – 42 times exceed the maximum permissible level for UV- B 0,01 W / m2 for occupational exposures (see Section 2.1.2 of the Sanitary norms № 4557-88), and at 50o of the northern latitude - 2 -40 times. In this, practically any month of the year, working in the open air there is a chance to receive a dose of the ultraviolet sun radiation exceeding 0,15 for MED. It is recommended that the Ukrainian population should be informed not only on the optimal duration of staying in the sun, but, also, about the danger of the risk of increasing the morbidity of skin malignant neoplasms along with other negative effects in the prolonged sun exposure.
Recommendations are proposed for initiating the research on improvement of hygienic regulation of UVR, as a component of insolation, for workers and the population.
Conclusions. Ultraviolet sun radiation, penetrating through a single-chamber glass pane of the ordinary glass in a room at the geographical latitudes of Ukraine, at the maximum possible exposure for a worker, can add 13,65 MED (1 MED - 200 J/m2 to the annual dose in accordance with the ISO 17166 «Erythema reference action spectrum and a standard erythema dose»), which carries a potential risk of non-melanoma skin malignant neoplasms of no more than 18 % (8.7·10-4) in comparison with the contingents where there is no such additional burden, with a prognosticated risk of death from this disease of no more than 0,2·10-4. .
Human exposure to the sun UVR for more than 3 hours per shift, not only in the direct sunlight, but also in the light entering a room through an ordinary window, requires time and screen protection.
Key words: ultraviolet radiation, insulation, minimum erythema dose, ultraviolet index, health risk.
ORCID ID of co-authors and their contribution to preparation and writing of the article:
Stebliy N.M. (ORCID ID 0000-0001-8041-0269) – review of the literature, processing and analysis of the obtained data, substantiation of the conclusions, writing of the article.
Akimenko V.Ya. (ORCID ID 0000-0002-7218-3358) – scientific guidance, definition of the purpose, task, research methods, analysis of the obtained data, substantiation of the conclusions.