Ukrainian Scientific-Research Institute of Industrial Medicine, Krivoy Rog
Introduction. A combination of unfavorable production factors for employees, engaged in iron ore mining, can results in significant tension of the cardiovascular, neuro-muscular and nervous systems. The systematic tension of main systems of the body causes depletion of compensatory-adaptive mechanisms, which is the basis of growth of the level of the general pathology, detected for the first time, and in the increase of work-related morbidity.
The purpose of the study. To establish a relationship between work conditions and the level and structure of common diseases, firstly detected in workers of the mining industry.
Materials and methods. A hygienic assessment of the impact of major adverse production factors was made on the basis of studying working conditions and working processes at 1460 workplaces of employees of main professions of the mining industry in 2010–2015. A primary diagnostics of common diseases was studied on the analysis of final acts of periodic medical examinations over 2005–2015.
Results. Comprehensive studies have been conducted and the characteristics as well as hygienic assessment of work conditions and work processes at all stages of mining and processing of iron ore have been made. One of the most numerous contingents, subjected to an increased occupational risk are employees of mining and metallurgical complex, 75 % of which work in conditions that do not meet hygienic standards. The study of primary morbidity on the results of periodic medical examinations showed that a long-term effect of main unfavorable factors of the work environment of different intensity gives 2,5–2,9 time increase of the primary morbidity as compared to the control group. The first place in the structure of the first detected general diseases is taken by those of the circulatory system. Chronic diseases of low respiratory tract take a significant place in workers of the underground mining of iron ore. In workers of the open mining of iron ore somatotrophic vegetative dysfunctions and vegetosensory polyneuropathies of the upper extremities are prevailed.
Conclusions. It is proved that the long-term effect of main unfavorable factors of the work environment of different intensity results in the increase of the primary morbidity, which is in direct relation to work conditions for these workers. The conducted studies open perspectives for further studies, aimed at categorization of occupational risk, depending on work conditions and development and implementation of preventive measures, directed at risk reduction.
Key words: work conditions, mining, primary morbidity