Age and experience-related differences in bloodcirculation functioning of underground coal miners
N.A. Bobko1, R.Ya. Yabchanka2
1State Institution «Kundiiev Institute of Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine», Kyiv
2Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv
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Introduction. Every fourth case of acute diseases of the bloodcirculatory system in miners becomes fatal. Arterial hypertension (AH) is classified as an occupational disease. In those employed in underground work, the depth and rate of development of pathological processes exceed those of workers employed on the ground. The reasons for this situation are associated with a complex of harmful and dangerous factors in the working conditions of miners.
The purpose of the research was to identify some age and experience-related differences in bloodcirculation functioning in miners employed at underground coal mining enterprises.
Materials and research methods. 31 miners of 32–58 years (43,5±1,2) with the total work experience of 13–28 years (20,6±0,7), underground shift work experience in the occupation - 8–22 years (15,7±0,7) were measured: heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BPS, BPD), height and weight. Haemodynamic indices, Kerdo's (VIK) and bloodcirculatory failure (BFI) indices were calculated, the type of bloodcirculation self-regulation was determined. Data were analyzed at the p<0,05 level.
Results. According to the average group data, BPS and BPD were found in the zone of high norm, HR - at the upper limit of the norm, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) - in the zone of the "average" functional state of the bloodcirculatory system, peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) - in the "below average" zone, BFI - in the zone of tension of regulatory systems, VIK - in tendency to parasympathicotonia. 39% of miners showed BP in the zone of moderate AH, 6% - in medium AH, 100% - showed impaired self-regulation of bloodcirculation: 81% - by vascular type, 19% - by cardiac type. With an increase in age and experience, BPS, BPD, mean dynamic pressure, PVR increased, SV, CO decreased, and VIK decreased with age. With an increase in underground work experience, the asymmetry of BPD increased and the asymmetry of BPS decreased in miners. The functional state of the miners' bloodcirculatory system passed into the class of "below average" at the age of 48, with the total work experience of 24 years, and with the underground work experience – of 18 years.
Conclusions. The miners showed an unfavourable state of the bloodcirculatory system: in 45% - increased BP corresponded to AH, in 100% of the examined - impaired self-regulation of blood circulation, which is considered as a risk factor for the development of AH. The early transition of the functional state of the bloodcirculatory system to the "below average" class reflects the pronounced adverse effect of working conditions. An increase in BPD asymmetry and a decrease in BPS asymmetry (p<0,05) with an increase in underground work experience can be associated with the involvement of specific mechanisms of adaptation to work, in particular, cardiorenal. The identified isolated age-related increase in parasympathicotone is not consistent with the population norm and indicates the presence of adverse effects of a non-production origin, reflecting the need for comprehensive preventive measures to improve the working and living conditions of miners to extend their occupational longevity.
Key words: miners, underground work, shift work, night work, hypertension, parasympathicotonia, functional state of the bloodcirculatory system, harmful and dangerous working conditions.
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