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Distribution dynamics of iron and other elements in blood and organs of rats following administration of iron oxide nanoparticles of varied sizes

ISSN 2223-6775 Ukrainian journal of occupational health Vol.19, No 4, 2023


https://doi.org/10.33573/ujoh2023.04.256

Distribution dynamics of iron and other elements in blood and organs of rats following administration of iron oxide nanoparticles of varied sizes

Dmytrukha N.M., Andrusyshyna I.M., Legkostup L.A., Kozlov K.P., Gerasimova O.V.
State Institution «Kundiiev Institute of Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine», Kyiv


Full article (PDF): ENG / UKR

Introduction: The widespread application of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs) in diverse industrial sectors, notably in medicine for purposes like MRI contrast enhancement, hyperthermia-induced tumor destruction, and targeted drug delivery, necessitates a comprehensive understanding of their accumulation dynamics and interactions with biological structures within the human body. The dearth of data on the distribution of these NPs in the body and their mechanisms of interaction poses a significant challenge. Excessive iron levels in the body can trigger oxidative stress and metabolic disorders, contributing to the development of various pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, and degenerative changes in the nervous and pulmonary systems.

Objective: This study aims to elucidate the accumulation and distribution patterns of iron (Fe) in blood and internal organs subsequent to prolonged administration of colloidal solutions containing Fe2O3 NPs of sizes 19 nm and 75 nm to rats. Additionally, the study investigates the impact on the balance of essential elements, including calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and magnesium (Mg).

Materials and Methods: Experimental evaluations of Fe and other element accumulations (Ca, Fe, Zn, Mg) were conducted in the blood and internal organs of rats following the introduction of colloidal solutions of iron oxide nanoparticles with sizes of 19 nm and 75 nm. Metal content was determined using optical emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma on a Perkin Elmer Optima 2100 DV device. Measurements were taken after 30 injections of Fe2O3 solutions and again after a 30-day post-exposure period.

Results: The study revealed a substantial increase in free iron content in the whole blood and internal organs of rats after 30 injections of colloidal solutions of Fe2O3 with NPs of both sizes. Even 30 days after cessation of NP administration, iron levels continued to rise in the blood and organs. Prolonged intake of Fe2O3 colloidal solutions induced an imbalance of essential metals (Ca, Zn, Cu, Mg) in the blood and organs, with more pronounced discrepancies observed with the introduction of 19 nm Fe2O3 NPs. The acquired data unequivocally reveal a notable escalation in the concentration of iron within the bloodstream of the experimental rats, coupled with its entry and accumulation in various organs, suggesting a protracted removal period from the body. Notably, prolonged ingestion of Fe2O3 colloidal solutions in rat models was found to disrupt the equilibrium of essential metals (Ca, Zn, Cu, Mg) within both blood and organs, resulting in manifestations of either deficiency or excess. Notably, a more pronounced perturbation in elemental balance was discerned with the introduction of 19 nm Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs). This observed iron accumulation raises concerns about its potential to incite oxidative stress, thereby contributing to the onset of conditions such as liver cirrhosis and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the identified imbalance in elements Ca, Zn, Cu, Mg may foster the development of trace element-related disorders, leading to functional impairments in metal-containing proteins, enzymes, and metabolic processes.

Conclusions: The identified differences in iron accumulation and the observed imbalance of essential elements suggest a potential negative impact on the functioning of organs, metal-containing proteins, and enzymes. These findings underscore the importance of cautious use of iron oxide nanoparticles in medical applications, necessitating preventive measures and interventions to address potential microelement diseases associated with their prolonged intake.

Keywords: iron oxide, nanoparticles, toxicity, elemental imbalance, macro- and microelements.

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