ISSN 2223-6775 Ukrainian journal of occupational health Vol.17, No 2, 2021
Incidence of professional tuberculosis in Ukraine in the dynamics of long-term monitoring
Nagorna A.M.1, Sokolova M.P.1, Kononova I.G.2
1 State Institution «Kundiiev Institute of Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine», Kyiv
2 State Institution «The L.V. Gromashevsky Institute of Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases of NAMS of Ukraine», Kiev
Full article (PDF), UKR
Introduction. Tuberculosis (TB), a socially dangerous chronic human infectious disease, is one of the occupational diseases that are underdiagnosed in workers in Ukraine. According to the Ministry of Health, the TB epidemic in Ukraine began in 1995. During this time, the number of primary tuberculosis patients has increased significantly. The TB epidemic in Ukraine has gone beyond the purely medical industry and has received the status of a nationwide problem.
Professional groups with an increased risk of infection with mycobacteria include employees of medical institutions, clinical (bacteriological and pathological) laboratories, ritual services, rescue services, law enforcement agencies and correctional institutions, social services, the education system, utilities, passenger transport, agriculture and forestry, hunters, zoo and veterinary workers, extractive industry workers, workers exposed to crystalline silicon dioxide, iron oxide (Fe2O3), migrant workers, catering personnel, military personnel.
Thus, the above facts indicate that the TB problem is essential for occupational medicine, occupational infectious pathology and preventive medicine in general.
The aim of the study was to determine the patterns of the formation of occupational tuberculosis morbidity in workers in Ukraine in the dynamics of long-term observation.
Materials and research methods. The methodology for studying occupational morbidity was based on the principle of a continuous statistical sample of primary documents compiled for all cases of newly diagnosed occupational diseases and registered in Ukraine for 1991-2018. A study of the primary documents compiled for all cases of occupational tuberculosis cases first identified and registered in Ukraine for 1991-2018 was carried out. Data for the period 1991-2012 were taken from the analytical information system "Occupational morbidity" of the RIVC of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine, for the period 2013-2018 - provided under a contract by the Social Insurance Fund of Ukraine.
Results. Occupational TB in the structure of the total occupational tuberculosis morbidity in Ukraine for the observation period 1991-2018 has a different proportion, but in recent years there has been a clear tendency to decrease it to 1.2% in 2018. The number of newly registered cases of occupational tuberculosis is also decreasing.
It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that TB of professional genesis is divided into TB itself and TB, which arose against the background of pneumoconiosis (coniotuberculosis).
The results of comparing the overall incidence of TB in Ukraine and the incidence of occupational TB show that the incidence of occupational TB is ten times less than the incidence of tuberculosis in Ukraine in general.
- Conclusions. Occupational TB in the structure of the general occupational morbidity of the population in Ukraine for the observation period 1991-2018. has a different share, but in recent years there has been a clear tendency for it to decrease to 1.2% in 2018.
- Since 2011, there has been a sharp decrease in the registration of TB cases of occupational origin, and in 2018 only 23 cases of TB of occupational origin were registered.
- In the period from 1991 to 2010, cases of coniotuberculosis prevailed in the composition of occupational tuberculosis in Ukraine. The proportion of coniotuberculosis in TB of occupational genesis was 60-95%, and tuberculosis itself accounted for up to 35%. Since 2011, this ratio began to change - and already in 2017, among the forms of occupational tuberculosis, only 12.5% of cases of coniotuberculosis were registered, and in 2018 - only 8.7%.
- The incidence of TB of occupational genesis is ten times less than the incidence of tuberculosis in Ukraine in general. And in recent years (2015-2018) the difference is hundreds of times.
- The decrease in the number of cases of occupational TB and the incidence of TB associated with working conditions indicates a decrease in the priority of the state in medical (including preventive) care for the working population, hiding the real size of the problem and possible adverse consequences for the health of the working population and society in the whole.
Key words: tuberculosis, coniotuberculosis, occupational diseases.
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