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Morphofunctional manifestations of the acute effects of lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles upon different methods of their administration into the organism of laboratory animals (rats)

ISSN 2223-6775 Ukrainian journal of occupational health Vol.19, No 2, 2023

Morphofunctional manifestations of the acute effects of lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles upon different methods of their administration into the organism of laboratory animals (rats)

Didenko M.M., Melnyk N.A., Patyka T.I., Zinchenko V.M.
State Institution "Kundiev Institute of Occupational Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine", Kyiv

Full article (PDF): ENG / UKR

Introduction. Lead compounds in the nanometer range (1-100 nm) pose a particular danger when entering the human and animal body through various routes (via respiratory organs, food and water intake, skin penetration, etc.). One of the most hazardous manifestations of the overall toxic effects of lead sulfide nanoparticles (PbS NPs) is their ability to translocate into cells, leading to subsequent distribution and accumulation in target organs. However, the literature lacks a comprehensive understanding of their reactive potential and the impact on the body through different routes of penetration and observation periods. This underscores the relevance and necessity of conducting experimental studies to morphologically assess the manifestations of acute toxic effects of different-sized PbS NPs (12.5 nm, 100 nm) when introduced into the abdominal cavity and through the skin, taking into account their accumulation and distribution in cells and organ tissues.

The aim of the research – The morpho-functional changes in the liver and spleen were determined following a single intraperitoneal administration of PbS nanoparticles of low size (12.5 nm) and large size (100 nm), as well as the dermal changes following a single administration to the skin, taking into account their accumulation in organ and tissue structures.

Materials and methods of the research. The research object was low-sized PbS nanoparticles (NPs) and the Wistar rat strain (n=18), which were divided into three groups (one control and two experimental groups). The rats were administered 1.0 ml of a colloidal solution of PbS, which contained nanoparticles of different sizes (12.5 nm and 100 nm). The effects were studied after a single intraperitoneal administration and a single dermal application (with a 1-day exposure). Morphological studies were conducted using conventional and specialized histological and histochemical methods.

Results. The morphological studies of the liver revealed significant dilation and congestion of sinusoidal capillaries and pronounced hypertrophy of stellate reticuloendothelial cells (SRECs), associated with the accumulation of small crystalline inclusions in their cytoplasm. Hepatocytes exhibited cytoplasmic clearing and nuclear hypertrophy. In the spleen, the histochemical Perl's stain revealed iron accumulation upon exposure to different-sized PbS nanoparticles (12.5 nm and 100 nm), indicating accelerated erythrocyte breakdown accompanied by the release of iron from hemoglobin, which is phagocytosed by active macrophages in the red pulp. The skin dermis exhibited a significant presence of muscle fibers with accumulation of acidic proteins, transforming them into "hyaline layers" and leading to the development of hyalinosis.

Conclusions. The presence of small crystalline inclusions in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells and stellate reticuloendothelial cells (SRECs) in the liver is associated with their interaction with proteins in the peritoneal fluid and serum, which facilitates the transport of low-sized nanoparticles (NPs) in the body and their interaction with phagocytic cell membranes that engulf the PbS NPs. In the spleen, the 12.5 nm PbS NPs cause significant damage to erythrocytes, resulting in the release of iron from hemoglobin, which is then absorbed by siderophages in the red pulp. In the skin dermis, the deposition of NPs leads to an inflammatory reaction in muscle fibers, characterized by the presence of acidic proteins, further contributing to the process of hyalinosis.

Keywords: PbS NPs spleen, liver, skin dermis, stellate reticuloendothelial cells (SRECs), hyalinosis.


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