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Nanotoxicology – a new direction in industrial toxicology, task and research results

ISSN 2223-6775 Ukrainian journal of occupational health Vol.19, No 1, 2023

Nanotoxicology – a new direction in industrial toxicology, task and research results

Dmytrukha N.M.
State institution "Kundiiev Institute of Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine", Kyiv

Full article (PDF): ENG / UKR

Introduction. The development of nanotechnology and the increasing variety of nanomaterials not only open up new prospects for their application but also create new threats to the environment and human health. The primary task of modern preventive medicine is to develop, substantiate, and implement new and reliable methods and ways of assessing the biosafety of nanomaterials, as well as measures aimed at preventing their harmful effects on the health of various population groups. This is the concern of the new discipline of nanotoxicology.

The aim of the study is to study and summarize the data from worldwide and domestic literature on nanotoxicology, safety evaluation of artificially synthesized nanomaterials, in particular, metal nanoparticles, mechanisms of their toxicity, and means of preventing their adverse effects on human health and environment.

Materials and methods. The analytical review of scientific publications was carried out using the information data bases Portalnano, PubMed, the journal Nanotoxicology (, the National Library of Ukraine named after V.I. Vernadsky with the hInternet resources.

Results. The article presents an analytical review of the literature on nanotechnology, nanomaterials, and their applications, safety assessment, and research on nanotoxicology. The results of experimental studies of the toxicity and safety of metal nanoparticles, as well as our own research on the effects of PbS, CdS, and Fe2O3 nanoparticles on rats and in vitro studies on cell cultures and human blood plasma proteins, are presented. It was shown that the toxicity of metal NPs and their compounds depends on the size, surface area, charge of the particle, source material, dose, route of entry, solubility and duration of exposure. The decisive factor in the mechanism of metal NPs toxicity is the development of oxidative stress, which can lead to lipid peroxidation, cell membrane damage, stimulation of the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the development of an inflammatory reaction and cell apoptosis, nuclear and DNA damage, genotoxic effects, and protein denaturation.

Conclusions. Comprehensive toxicological studies to establish the features and manifestations of the toxic effect of nanoparticles and nanomaterials in vitro and in vivo allow to assess and forecast possible risks and negative effects of their impact on workers and general population. Carrying out toxicological and hygienic examination of nanoparticles and nanomaterials synthesized and used in Ukraine will allow control, certification and implementation of high-quality and safe nanoproducts.

Keywords: nanotoxicology, nanomaterials, metal nanoparticles, safety and toxicity.


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