You are using an outdated browser. For a faster, safer browsing experience, upgrade for free today.

Quality and duration of sleep on working days and days off and the functional body state of long haul truck drivers

ISSN 2223-6775 Ukrainian journal of occupational health Vol.20, No 1, 2024


https://doi.org/10.33573/ujoh2024.01.024

Quality and duration of sleep on working days and days off and the functional body state of long haul truck drivers

Bobko N.A., Gadayeva D.O., Antoniuk A.Yu.
State Institution «Kundiiev Institute of Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine», Kyiv, Ukraine


Full article (PDF), ENG

Introduction. Sleep is a special metabolic state aimed at self-recovery the body after “day work” and assimilating the information received. Sleep quality is positively associated with the characteristics of human body functioning, while sleep duration manifests the U-shaped relationships. Lack of sleep among drivers leads to increased accidents on the roads.

The purpose of the study was to reveal correlations between the quality and duration of sleep on working days and days off, on the one hand, and parameters of the functional body state of long haul truck drivers, on the other.

Materials and methods. 87 long haul truck drivers aged 28-67 years were examined (M±m: 49.9±1.0). The quality of sleep, physical and mental workability, sociability, felt fatigue, tension, stress, and monotony were assessed on a 5-point Likert scale, personal anxiety - according to Spielberger-Khanin, duration of sleep and extreme periods during the about-2-week round trip - subjectively. Complaints about well-being were studied using the Voitenko’s questionnaire. Measurements were made: circumference of waist (WC), hip (HC), wrist, body mass, height; BPS, BPD, heart rate; the duration of breath holding while inhaling (Stange’s test), the duration of static balancing on the left leg (Uemura’s test). There were calculated: basal metabolism (according to the Muffin-Jeor formula), body mass index (BMI), WC/HC; systolic volume, minute volume of blood flow, peripheral vascular resistance, self-assessment health index (SHI), pathological index (PI). The data were processed statistically at the p<0.05 level.

Results. On average for the group, drivers rate the quality of sleep on workdays as 4.06±0.08 c.u., on days off - 4.31±0.07 c.u. The duration of sleep on workdays is 8.29±0.15 hours, on days off - 9.09±0.17 hours, the duration of night sleep - 7.94±0.15 hours and 8.48±0.15 hours, respectively. Improved sleep quality on days off is accompanied by an increase in mental (p<0.01) and physical (p<0.03) workability, sociability (p<0.05), a decrease in the felt tension (p<0.02) and the duration of extreme periods during a trip (p<0.03), increased felt happiness (p<0.01), calm, equanimity, composure (p<0.05), increased height (p<0.03), duration of static balancing (p<0.01), reduction in the number of complaints about health (p<0.01) and chronic pathology (p<0.01); on working days –an increase in the felt happiness (p<0.03) and in height (p<0.03), a decrease in the felt monotony (p<0.05), in the number of complaints about health (p<0.00001) and chronic pathology (p<0.001). Prolongation of sleep on days off is accompanied by a decrease in the felt fatigue (p<0.05) and tension (p<0.05), an increase in body mass (p<0.02), height (p<0.01), hip (p<0.02) and wrist (p<0.03) circumference, basal metabolism (p<0.01); on working days - a decrease in WC/HC (p<0.02). Prolongation of night sleep on days off is accompanied by an increase in physical workability (p<0.04), height (p<0.04), duration of breath holding (p<0.05), a decrease in BMI (p<0.05) and complaints about mopes (p<0.01); on working days – a decrease in WC/HC (p<0.03). According to the average group data, drivers manifest general pre-obesity (BMI = 28.87 ± 0.51 c.u.), the upper limit of abdominal pre-obesity, bordering on obesity (WC = 101.22 ± 1.39 cm), and a significantly increased risk of metabolic complications (WC/HC = 0.93 ± 0.01 c.u.). At fairly high levels of blood pressure (136±2 / 87±1 mm Hg) and heart rate (79±1 beats/min.), although still within the physiological norm, the efficiency of hemodynamics, on average for the group, is assessed as "below average".

Conclusions. Long haul truck drivers are “long sleepers”, that may reflect unfavorable changes in their functional body state as a consequence of unfavorable working conditions. In this, increasing the quality and duration of sleep helps to improve the driver’s workability and reduces the development of unfavorable functional body states. Improving the quality of sleep contributes to the formation of personal qualities that reduce anxiety, lengthening night sleep - weakening the qualities that increase it, which helps ensure the professional reliability of the driver. Improvement in sleep quality is accompanied by a decrease in the number of health complaints, in the development of chronic pathology and improvement in blood supply to the brain; lengthening in night sleep – by improvement in blood supply to the body. Lengthening sleep on days off is associated with the development of (pre)obesity, while prolongation of night sleep helps to reduce it and restore the height of the intervertebral discs. The quality and duration of sleep on days off is significantly (p<0.0004) more associated with the driver’s functional body state than on working days. Sleep quality - more than duration - is associated with ensuring performance, health, blood supply to the body and brain, while sleep duration is more related to anthropometric data, metabolism and the development of (pre)obesity. In general, long sleep, as well as getting enough sleep, especially during the days off, reflecting unfavorable phenomena in the body functioning, plays an undoubtedly positive role in maintaining the health and workability of truck drivers. Getting quality sleep, especially during the days off, is primarily important to restore their workability and professional reliability.

Keywords: workability, sociability, fatigue, tension, monotony, anxiety, obesity, blood supply to the body, blood supply to the brain, self-assessment of health, sleep, night sleep.

References

  1. Akerstedt T, Nilsson PM. Sleep as restitution: an introduction. J. Int. Med. 2003;254(1):6-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2796.2003.01195.x.
  2. Gale JE, Cox HI, Qian J, et all Disruption of circadian rhythms accelerates development of diabetes through pancreatic beta-cell loss and dysfunction. J. Biol. Rhythms. 2011;26(5):423-33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0748730411416341.
  3. Ben Simon E, Rossi A, Harvey AG, Walker MP. Overanxious and underslept. Nat Hum Behav. 2020;4(1):100-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-019-0754-8.
  4. Yin S, Wang J, Bai Y, Yang Z, Cui J, Wang J. Association between sleep duration and kidney stones in 34 190 American adults: A cross-sectional analysis of NHANES 2007-2018. Sleep Health. 2022;8(6):671-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2022.08.003.
  5. Sabia S, Fayosse A, Dumurgier J, van Hees VT, Paquet C, Sommerlad A, Kivimäki M, Dugravot A, Singh-Manoux A. Association of sleep duration in middle and old age with incidence of dementia. Nat Commun. 2021;12(1):2289. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22354-2.
  6. Dong L, Xie Y, Zou X. Association between sleep duration and depression in US adults: A cross-sectional study. J Affect Disord. 2022;296:183-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.09.075.
  7. Bacaro V, Ballesio A, Cerolini S, Vacca M, Poggiogalle E, Donini LM, Lucidi F, Lombardo C. Sleep duration and obesity in adulthood: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2020;14(4):301-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orcp.2020.03.004.
  8. Li J, Cao D, Huang Y, Chen Z, Wang R, Dong Q, Wei Q, Liu L. Sleep duration and health outcomes: an umbrella review. Sleep Breath. 2022 Sep;26(3):1479-501. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11325-021-02458-1.
  9. He J, Fan Y, Zhang L, Li C, Guo F, Zhu J, Guo P, Zhang B, Zhang M, Zhang M. Habitual night sleep duration is associated with general obesity and visceral obesity among Chinese women, independent of sleep quality. Front Public Health. 2023;11:1053421. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2023.1053421.
  10. Beccuti G, Pannain S. Sleep and obesity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011;14(4):402-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0b013e3283479109.
  11. Krause AJ, Vallat R, Simon EB, Walker MP. Sleep Loss Influences the Interconnected Brain-Body Regulation of Cardiovascular Function in Humans. Psychosom Med. 2023 Jan 1;85(1):34-41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000001150.
  12. Li M, Wang N, Dupre ME. Association between the self-reported duration and quality of sleep and cognitive function among middle-aged and older adults in China. J Affect Disord. 2022;304:20-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2022.02.039.
  13. Denison HJ, Jameson KA, Sayer AA, Patel HP, Edwards MH, Arora T, Dennison EM, Cooper C, Baird J. Poor sleep quality and physical performance in older adults. Sleep Health. 2021;7(2):205-11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2020.10.002.
  14. Åkerstedt T, Bellocco R, Widman L, Eriksson J, Ye W, Adami H-O, Lagerros YT. The association of short and long sleep with mortality in men and women. J Sleep Res. 2024 Apr;33(2):e13931. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13931.
  15. Krittanawong C, Tunhasiriwet A, Wang Z, Zhang H, Farrell AM, Chirapongsathorn S, Sun T, Kitai T, Argulian E. Association between short and long sleep durations and cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2019;8(8):762-70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2048872617741733.
  16. Åkerstedt T, Trolle-Lagerros Y, Widman L, Ye W, Adami H.-O, Bellocco R. Sleep duration and mortality, influence of age, retirement, and occupational group. J Sleep Res. 2022;31(3):e13512. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13512.
  17. Li X, Huang D, Liu F, Li X, Lv J, Wu Q, Zhao Y. Sleep Characteristics and Cancer-Related Outcomes: An Umbrella Review of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies. J Clin Med. 2022 Dec 8;11(24):7289. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11247289.
  18. Ben Simon E, Walker MP. Sleep loss causes social withdrawal and loneliness. Nat Commun. 2018 Aug 14;9(1):3146. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05377-0.
  19. Dula CS, Adams CL, Miesner MT, Leonard RL. Examining relationships between anxiety and dangerous driving. Accid Anal Prev. 2010;42(6):2050-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2010.06.016.
  20. Tolstova YuN. [One-dimensional scaling: test tradition in sociology]. Sotsiolohiia: 4M. 1997;(8):54-65. Russian.
  21. Leonova AB. [Psychodiagnostics of human functional states]. Moscow: MSU;1984. 200 p.
  22. Karelin AA, editor. [Psychological tests: in 2 vol.]. Moscow: VLADOS; 2002. v.1. 312 p.
  23. 23. World Health Organization. Waist Circumference and Waist–Hip Ratio: Report of a WHO Expert Consultation. Geneva, 8–11 December 2008 [Internet]. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2011 [cited 2024 Mar 22]. Available from: https://iris.who.int/bitstream/handle/10665/44583/9789241501491_eng.pdf?sequence=1
  24. Voitenko VP. [Health of the healthy]. Kyiv: Zdorov'ya; 1991. 248 p. Russian.
  25. Chalmers J, MacMahon S, Mancia G, Whitworth J, Beilin L, Hansson L, Neal B, Rodgers A, Ni Mhurchu C, Clark T. World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the management of hypertension. Guidelines sub-committee of the World Health Organization. Clin. Exp. Hypertens. 1999;21(5-6):1009-60.
  26. 26. Buzunov VA. [Production factors and age-related performance]. Kyiv: Zdorov'ya; 1991. 161 p.
  27. Minghelli B, Nunes C, Oliveira R. Body mass index and waist circumference to define thinness, overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents: comparison between CDC, IOTF, WHO references. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2014;12(1):35-41.
  28. Kasyanchuk VV. [Nutrition of the adult population and energy consumption depending on the type of labor activity] [Internet]. Sumy State University, Medical Institute; 2021 [cited 2024 Mar 22]. Available from: https://pubhealth.med.sumdu.edu.ua/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/Lecture-5-Basics-of-food-hygiene-and-healthy-eating.ppt. Ukrainian.
  29. [Static balancing. Age standards] [Internet]. Available from: http://beautyaura.ru/articles/health/staticheskaya-balansirovka/. Russian.
  30. [Breath-hold test (Stange test) (Gench test)] [Internet]. Available from: http://vmede.org/index.php?topic=484.0. Russian.
  31. Kiselevska SM, Yevsyukova TV, editors. [Health and biological age: methodological guidelines for students of a special medical group] [Internet]. Kyiv: KNUBA; 2017 [cited 2024 Mar 22]. 27 p. Available from: https://library.knuba.edu.ua/books/36_3_17.pdf. Ukrainian.
  32. Boyko A. [Healthy tests]. Moscow: Rossiyskaya Gazeta; 2003. 202 p. Russian.
  33. Gu M, Liu CC, Hsu CC, Lu CJ, Lee TS, Chen M, Ho CC. Associations of sleep duration with physical fitness performance and self-perception of health: a cross-sectional study of Taiwanese adults aged 23-45. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):594. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10636-9.
  34. Yang W, Zhuang Z, Huang P, Zhang M, Wang K, Jiang Y, Zhou H, Yu L. Short sleep time may be the main reason for irregular breakfast to cause overweight-a cross-sectional study. Front Nutr. 2024;11:1310155. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2024.1310155.
  35. Eid SW, Brown RF, Maloney SK, Birmingham CL. Can the relationship between overweight/obesity and sleep quality be explained by affect and behaviour? Eat Weight Disord. 2022;27(7):2821-34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-022-01435-1.
  36. Afsar B, Elsurer R. The relationship between sleep quality and daytime sleepiness and various anthropometric parameters in stable patients undergoing hemodialysis. J Ren Nutr. 2013;23(4):296-301. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2012.06.006.
  37. Li Y, Miao Y, Tan J, Zhang Q. Association of modifiable risk factors with obstructive sleep apnea: a Mendelian randomization study. Aging (Albany NY). 2023;15(23):14039-65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.205288.
  38. Garbarino S. [Sleep disorders and road accidents in truck drivers]. G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2008;30(3):291-6. Italian.
  39. Obirikorang C, Obirikorang Y, Acheampong E, Anto EO, Toboh E, Asamoah EA, Amakwaa B, Batu EN, Brenya P. Association of Wrist Circumference and Waist-to-Height Ratio with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Type II Diabetics in a Ghanaian Population. J Diabetes Res. 2018;2018:1838162. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1838162.
  40. Jahangiri Noudeh Y, Hadaegh F, Vatankhah N, Momenan AA, Saadat N, Khalili D, Azizi F. Wrist circumference as a novel predictor of diabetes and prediabetes: results of cross-sectional and 8.8-year follow-up studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(2):777-84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2012-2416.
  41. Hingorjo MR, Nisa A. Exploring the Role of Adult Wrist Circumference as a Potential Indicator of Obesity. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2024;34(2):135-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2024.02.135.
  42. Mohebi R, Mohebi A, Sheikholeslami F, Azizi F, Hadaegh F. Wrist circumference as a novel predictor of hypertension and cardiovascular disease: results of a decade follow up in a West Asian cohort. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2014;8(11):800-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jash.2014.08.010.
  43. Bobko NA, Diordichuk TI. [The evolution of the working conditions of truck drivers in Ukraine during the last decades]. In: [Occupational hygiene and occupational diseases: past, present and future. Proceedings of the scientific and practical conference dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Institute of Occupational Medicine (currently the Scientific Research Institute of Occupational Hygiene and Occupational Diseases of KhNMU)]. Kharkiv; 2023. P. 32-36.
  44. Frol'kis VV. [Physiological mechanisms of aging]. In: Chebotarev DF, Frol'kis VV, editors. [Physiological mechanisms of aging]. Leningrad: Nauka; 1982. 187–97 p.