You are using an outdated browser. For a faster, safer browsing experience, upgrade for free today.

Working tension in long-haul truck drivers: forming factors

ISSN 2223-6775 Ukrainian journal of occupational health Vol.19, No 4, 2023


https://doi.org/10.33573/ujoh2023.04.246

Working tension in long-haul truck drivers: forming factors

Bobko N.A., Gadayeva D.O., Antoniuk A.Yu.
State Institution «Kundiiev Institute of Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine», Kyiv


Full article (PDF): ENG / UKR

Introduction. Labour tension causes the body's work tension, which can be defined as an increase in the intensity of physiological processes that ensure occupational activity".This is accomplisheddue to an increase in energy consumption, that is, an increase in the physiological price of work performance. Labour tension is the leading adverse factor in the working conditions of long-haul truck drivers.

The purpose of the study was to reveal the characteristics of both the labour process and the body functional state that influence the formation of work tension in long-haultruck drivers.

Research materials and methods. 77 long-haul truck drivers aged 28-67 (M±m: 49.9±1.0) were examined. Felt working tension over the performed haul was evaluated using 5-ancor Likert scale. The following work process characteristics were registered: number of days spent in the hauls over the year and number of night working hours per haul – over the last working year, 5 years ago and 10 years ago. The following characteristics of body functional state were measured: age-experience parameters; blood pressure systolic (BPS) and diastolic, heart rate, Stange's test, Uemura's test, index of health status (IHS) and pathological index (PI) according to V.P. Voytenko's method; felt fatigue, stress, physical and mental workability by 5-ancor Likert scale; indicators of personal anxiety according to Spielberger-Khanin; duration and quality of night sleep on both working days and days off - for the last year, 5 years ago and 10 years ago. Statistical data processing was performed at p<0.05.

Results. Work tension level over the performed haul positively correlated (by Pearson, p<0,05) to both - the number of days spent in the hauls over the year and number of night working hours per haul - 10 years ago; to age-experience parameters; indices HIS, PI,anxiety; felt fatigue and stress. Negatively correlated to the indicators of the Stange’s test performance, felt physical workability, sleep parameters (also - 5 years ago).

A negative correlation between ATS and number of days spent in the hauls over the last year was revealed (r=-0.24, p<0.03). Certain health complaints were revealed, in the presence of which the felt working tension was higher than in their absence (p<0.05).

Conclusions. 1. The total number of working days in hauls per year (p<0.01) and the number of night working hours (p<0.04) influence the perennial cumulative formation of a shortage of body resources: the more they were in previous years (in our case - 10 years ago), the higher is the felt working tension(physiological price of work)today.2. The increased need of long-haul truck drivers for sleep duration (8.25±0.15 hours on working days; 9.09±0.17 hours on days off) compared to the healthy standard of 7-8 hours may be a consequence of unfavourable working conditions. Extending sleep and improving its quality on days off is accompanied by a decrease in the felt working tension (physiological price of work). Improving the quality of sleep on days off has a cumulative effect of long-term formation of the body's resources (in our case, 5 years). 3. An increase in the felt working tension (physiological price of the work performed) was found with an increase in age (p<0.02), experience of working as a driver (p<0.02), in long-term (by weeks) business trips (p<0.03) and frequent night work hours (p<0.05); number of health complaints (IHS index: p<0.001), risk of chronic diseases (PI index: p<0.001), personal anxiety (p<0.03), felt fatigue (p<0.0001), stress (p<0.0001), as well as in the presence of the following complaints: concentration problems (p<0.01), tinnitus (p<0.05), joint pain (p<0.05), pain in the lower back (p<0.05), unpleasant taste in the mouth (p<0.04), the need to use some decoctions etc. for therapeutic purposes (p<0.02), lethargy and wrinkling of the skin (p<0.01), a feeling of "creeping ants" (p<0.04). 4. A decrease in the felt working tension (physiological price of the performed work) was revealed with an increase in self-assessment of physical workability (p<0.03), a lengthening of the breath hold on inhalation (Stange test) (p<0.01) and an increase in pulse after performing the Stange test (p<0.03). 5. The lower the blood pressure, the longer the long-haul truck driver could stay on hauls and to withstand the working tension (p<0.03), which indicates the importance of maintaining the health of the circulatory system.

Keywords: working conditions, labour intensity, work process characteristics, body functional state, physiological price of work, circulatory system, age, experience, night work, watch work, shift work, anxiety.

References

  1. Navakatikyan AO, Kryzhanovskaya VV, Kal'nish VV. [Physiology and hygiene of mental work] Kyiv: Zdorov’ya; 1987. 152 p. Russian.
  2. Buzunov VA. [Production factors and age-related performance]. Kyiv: Zdorov'ya; 1991. 161 p. Russian.
  3. STATE SANITARY STANDARDS AND RULES [Hygienic classification of work according to indicators of harmfulness and danger of factors of the production environment, difficulty and intensity of the labour process]. Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine No. 248 (Apr. 08, 2014) [Internet]. Available from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z0472-14#Text. Ukrainian.
  4. Murphy LR. Job dimensions associated with severe disability due to cardiovascular disease. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 1991;44(2):155-66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0895-4356(91)90263-9.
  5. Draaijer M, Scheuermaier K, Lalla-Edward ST, Fischer AE, Grobbee DE, Venter F, Vos A. Influence of shift work on cardiovascular disease risk in Southern African long-distance truck drivers: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2022;12(4):e050645. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050645.
  6. Hege A, Lemke MK, Apostolopoulos Y, Sönmez S. Occupational health disparities among U.S. long-haul truck drivers: the influence of work organization and sleep on cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk. PLoSOne. 2018;13(11):e0207322. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0207322.
  7. Tolstova YuN. [One-dimensional scaling: test tradition in sociology]. Sotsiologiya: 4M. 1997;(8):54–65. Russian.
  8. Voytenko VP. [Health of the healthy]. Kyiv: Zdorov’ya; 1991. 248 p. Russian.
  9. Chalmers J, MacMahon S, Mancia G, Whitworth J, Beilin L, Hansson L, et al. World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the management of hypertension. Guidelines sub-committee of the World Health Organization, Clin Exp Hypertens, 1999;21(5-6):1009-60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/10641969909061028.
  10. Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DEJr, Collins KJ, Dennison Himmelfarb C, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/ NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults : A Report of the American College of Cardiology. American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines, J Am CollCardiol. 2018;71(19):e127–248. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.11.006.
  11. Trudel X, Brisson C, Milot A, Masse B, Vézina M. Adverse psychosocial work factors, blood pressure and hypertension incidence: repeated exposure in a 5-year prospective cohort study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2016;70(4):402-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2014-204914.
  12. Thiese MS, Hanowski RJ, Moffitt G, Kales SN, Porter RJ, Ronna B, Hartenbaum N, Hegmann KT. A retrospective analysis of cardiometabolic health in a large cohort of truck drivers compared to the American working population. Am J Ind Med. 2018;61(2):103-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22795.
  13. Lalla-Edward ST, Fischer AE, Venter WDF, Scheuermaier K, Meel R, Hankins C, Gomez G, Klipstein-Grobusch K, Draaijer M, Vos AG. Cross-sectional study of the health of southern African truck drivers. BMJ Open. 2019;9(10):e032025. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-032025.
  14. Kaneko S. [Mental health survey of truck drivers] Nihon EiseigakuZasshi. 2014;69(3):199-204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1265/jjh.69.199. Japanese.
  15. Faruque MO, Framke E, Sørensen JK, Madsen IEH, Rugulies R, Vonk JM, Boezen HM, Bültmann U. Psychosocial work factors and blood pressure among 63 800 employees from The Netherlands in the Lifelines Cohort Study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2022;76(1):60-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2021-216678.
  16. Landsbergis PA, Dobson M, Koutsouras G, Schnall P. Job strain and ambulatory blood pressure: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(3):e61-71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2012.301153.
  17. Wong R, Crane A, Sheth J, Mayrovitz HN. Shift Work as a Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor: A Narrative Review. Cureus. 2023;15(6):e41186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.41186.
  18. Chernozemov VG, Afanasenkova NV, Varentsova IA. [Methods of physiological research in humans]. Arkhangel'sk, 2017. 159 p. Russian.
  19. Clapp JD, Olsen SA, Beck JG, Palyo SA, Grant DMM, Gudmundsdottir B, Marques L. The Driving Behavior Survey: scale construction and validation. J Anxiety Disord. 2011;25(1):96-105. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.08.008.
  20. Chaput J-P, Dutil C, Featherstone R, Ross R, Giangregorio L, Saunders TJ, Janssen I, Poitras VJ, Kho ME, Ross-White A, Carrier J. Sleep duration and health in adults: an overview of systematic reviews. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2020;45(10 Suppl 2):S218-S231. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2020-0034.
  21. Akerstedt T, Nilsson PM. Sleep as restitution: an introduction. J. Int. Med. 2003;254(1):6–12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2796.2003.01195.x.
  22. Owens J. Adolescent Sleep Working Group; Committee on Adolescence. Insufficient sleep in adolescents and young adults: an update on causes and consequences. Pediatrics. 2014;134(3):e921-e932. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-1696.
  23. Denison HJ, Jameson KA, Sayer AA, Patel HP, Edwards MH, Arora T, Dennison EM, Cooper C, Baird J. Poor sleep quality and physical performance in older adults. Sleep Health. 2021;7(2):205-11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2020.10.002.
  24. Clement-Carbonell V, Portilla-Tamarit I, Rubio-Aparicio M, Madrid-Valero JJ. Sleep Quality, Mental and Physical Health: A Differential Relationship. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(2):460. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020460.