Approaches to express potential hazard assessment of nanosized fractions of welding fumes
Demetska O.V.1, Movchan V.O.1, Beliuha O.G.1, Didenko M.M.1, Balia A.G.2, Andrusyshyna I.M.1, Leonenko O.B.1
1State Institution «Kundiiev Institute of Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine», Kyiv, Ukraine
2Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Japan
Full article (PDF), UKR
Introduction. The impact of welding fumes (WF) remains a serious problem even in developed countries with a long history of improving the working environment. WF consists of both potentially dangerous gases and highly dispersed nanosized particles, nanosized particles, which are characterized by more pronounced biological activity and damaging effect. Screening evaluation of welding materials in vitro allows to obtain preliminary information on potential hazards, and is also appropriate from the standpoint of bioethics.
The purpose of research. According to the indicators of oxidative stress, as the main mechanism of damaging action of nanoparticles, to develop a method of rapid evaluation of nanoscale components.
Materials and methods of research. The damaging effect of nanosized fractions of solid components of WF (SCWF) formed during welding with high-alloy test electrodes with rutile coating was evaluated (two marks). The chemical composition of air samples was studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry using an optical emission spectrometer with an inductively coupled plasma "Ortima 2100" ("Perkin-Elmer", USA). Particle size was determined by dynamic light scattering using the Analysette 12 DynaSizer (Fritsch, Germany). Cattle sperm were used as a test object. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the method of rapid assessment of the toxicity of WF in vitro. The optical density of the obtained phospholipid extracts was determined using a ULAB 101UV spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 540 nm. Smear staining was performed according to the Lefler method (methylene blue), Main-Grunwald method (fixation) with Romanovsky staining diluted (1/3) and undiluted paint. Stained specimens were analyzed by immersion under an x1000 lens using a Charles Zeiss microscope (Germany).
Results. Nanofractions of rhutile-coated SCWF electrodes in vitro caused oxidative stress in the test object, resulting in morphological abnormalities, destruction of biological membranes, and release of phospholipids. The obtained data correspond to the results of in vivo and in vitro experiments, in which both studied electrodes showed cytotoxicity and damaging effect.
Conclusions. The proposed method of express assessment of WF’s potential hazards significantly reduces the complexity of testing and can be used as a screening in toxicological and hygienic research at the stage of development and improvement of welding materials and / or welding technology.
Keywords: welding fumes, welding electrodes, nanofractions, cytotoxicity, express assessment.
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